^Daiid C).uWo!xKay 9_ } ib/ta/ty DA 670 B9 G7 UPPER SNAKE RIVER BRANCH GENEALOGICAL LIBRARY m mm m qey RICKS COLLEGE LRC .. Ill llll III! Illl llll III 3 1404 00 010 433 8 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/buckinghamshiresOOIond BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ! ft SDort filstorp, • toitl) Genealogies ana Current Biographies. NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. Edited by JOHN GRANT. Published only for Subscribers ; in Cioo Volumes, Price £6 6s. per Set 1911. THE LONDON & PROVINCIAL PUBLISHING Co., Ltd., 84, Hatton Garden, London, E.C. Contents. County Article Yeomanry Article The Right Hon. the Baron Rothschild, P.C., G.C.V.O., Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire The Right Hon. The Baron Addington, J. P., M.A. The late Sir John Aird, Bt., J. P. ... Henry Eden Allhusen, Esq., B.A., D.L., J. P. ... Miss Andrewes, of Maids' Morton Manor Waldorf Astor, Esq. Lieut. -Colonel Francis Tyringham Higgins Bernard, M.A T P Colonel William Edward Blewitt, C.B., C.M.G. John Irvine Boswell, Esq., M.D., J. P. 3 1 63 67 73 75 79 83 87 9i 93 Lieut-Colonel Wentworth Grenville Atkins-Bowyer, R.E (Retired) J. P. ... Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bt., M.A., M.D M.R.C.S., F.R.C.P. John Mitchell Bruce, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S LVJL • L 1 • ••• ••• • • • i The Right Hon. The Earl of Buckinghamshire, D.L., J.P.. Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Burney, J. P. The Right Hon. The Baron Burnham, K.C.V.O., D.L., J.P. Mrs. Burton, of Upton Court Ernest Callard, Esq. William Walter Carlile, Esq., D.L., J.P. The Right Hon. The Earl Carnngton, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G George Carrington, Esq., J. P., B.A.... The Right Hon. The Baron Chesham Sir William Robert Clayton, Bt., D.L., J. P., M.A. Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks, Esq., B.A. The Right Hon. The Baron Cottesloe, D.L., J. P., M.A. Sir Charles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., M.P., B.C.L M.A., J.P. 95 99 103 105 11? 119 125 127 129 J 33 137 139 141 H3 H5 147 Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, Premier Baronet of Great Britain. ... ... ... ... 151 The Right Hon. The Baron Decies, D.S.O. ... ... 159 Major James Bogle Delap, J. P. ... ... ... 161 The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., J.P. ... ... ... ... 165 The Right Hon. The Baron Devonport, P.C., D.L., J.P. ... 173 Coningsby Ralph Disraeli, Esq., D.L., J.P. ... ... 175 William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Drake, Esq., D.L., J.P. ... 181 John Edward Montague Bradish-Ellames, Esq. ... 183 Sir George Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. ... ... 185 Sir Lancelot Aubrey Fletcher, Bt. ... ... ... 189 John Bevill Fortescue, Esq., D.L., J.P., M.A. ... ... 193 Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward Goodall, D.L., J.P. ... 199 The Right Hon. The Baron Grenfell, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., F.S.A., J.P. ... ... ... 203 Mrs. Henry Riversdale Grenfell, of Bacres ... ... 207 Charles Seymour Grenfell, Esq., J.P. ... ... 209 James Whitehouse Griffin, Esq. J.P. ... ... 211 Robert Griffin, Esq., J.P. ... ... ... 213 Mrs. Hall, of Foscott Manor ... ... ... 215 George Hanbury, Esq., J. P. ... ... ... 217 Vaughan Harley, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P. ... ... 219 Sir Robert Grenville Harvey, Bt., D.L. ... ... 221 The Right Hon. Lord John Hay, G.C.B. ... ... 223 Colonel John Herscliel, R.E., (Retired) F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ... 227 Mrs. Napier Higgins, of Winchendon Priory ... ... 231 General Sir George Went worth Alexander Higginson, G.C.B, J. P. ... ... ... ... 233 Howard Henry Howard- Vyse, Esq, D.L, J. P. ... 235 The Right Hun. The Earl Howe, G.C.V.O., J. P. ... 237 The Baroness Kin loss, C.I. ... ... ... 239 John Matthew Knapp, Esq, J. P., C.C, M.A. ... ... 241 Captain William Henry Lambton ... ... ... 243 The Right Hon. The Baron Lawrence, D.L, J. P., B.A. ... 245 The Hon. Harry Lawson Webster Lawson, M.P, J. P., M.A. 249 Mrs. Lee, of Hartwell House ... ... ... 253 Arthur Hamilton Lee Esq, M.P. ... ... ... 255 Rudolph Chambers Lehmann, Esq, J.P, M.A.... ... 257 Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, Bt, J.P..., ... ... 259 Arthur Lasenby Liberty, Esq., D.L., J. P., C.C. Lieut. -Colonel William John Levi, J. P. Richard William Selby-Lowndes, Esq. William Dalziel Mackenzie, Esq., D.L., J. P., M.A. Norman McCorquodale, Esq., J. P. ... Lieut. -Colonel Charles Meeking, J.P., M.A. ... Sydney Richardson Christie-Miller, Esq., M.A., J.P. Joseph Trueman Mills, Esq., D.L., J. P., Tonman Mosley, Esq., C.B., D.L., F.S.S., J.P. B.A. Francis Joseph Scott-Murray, Esq. The Right Hon. The Earl of Orkney, J.P. Major Charles Henry Dayrell Palmer Sir Everard Philip Digby Pauncefort-Duncombe, Bt. B.A. John William Garrett-Pegge, Esq., J.P. The Hon. Mrs. A. Douglas-Pennant Sir Berkeley Pigott, Bt. Vice-Admiral William Harvey Pigott, J.P. William Baring Du Pre, Esq., J.P. Charles Matthew Prior, Esq., J.P. ... Sir John William Ramsden, Bt., D.L., J. P., M A. 263 267 269 271 279 281 283 289 291 297 299 301 3°5 3°7 3°9 311 3*3 3 IQ - 323 327 John Frecheville Ramsden, Esq., D.L. ... ... 333 Abraham John Robarts, Esq., D.L. , J. P., B.A. ... ... 335 James Shaw Robinson, Esq. ... ... ... 337 Sir Philip Frederick Rose, Bt, D.L., J. P. .. ... 339 The Right Hon. The Earl of Rosebery and Midlothian, K.C.,K.T.,P.C.,LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.B.A,F.S.A,J.P... 341 Miss Alice Charlotte de Rothschild ... "... 343 Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Esq., M.P., J. P. ... 345 Sir Samuel Edward Scott, Bt., M.P., D.L. ... ... 347 Alfred Walter Sykes, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.S., M.R.C.P., D.Sc. 349 The Hon. William Frederick Danvers Smith, D.L., J. P., ■m-J * **• ••• ••• • • a ••• S jl Harod William Swithinbank, Esq., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., J.P. 353 Pembroke Scott Stephens, Esq., K.C., J.P. ... ... 357 The Right Hon. The Earl Temple, J. P., B.A. ... ... 359 John Hicks Tempest, Esq., J.P. ... ... ... 361 Henry Yates Thompson, Esq., F.R.G.S., J. P., B.A. ... 367 Lieut. -Colonel Charles William Trotter ... ... 369 William Francis Andrewes Uthwatt, Esq. ... ... 373 Sir Harry Calvert Williams Verney, Bt., M.P., M.A., J.P. 379 Edward Hanslope Watts, Esq., J. P., B.A. ... ... 385 Thomas Owen Wethered, Esq., J.P. ... ... 389 editorial note. In the preparation of this book, the Editor has been assisted by a staff of competent contributors, and the work of research has occupied a considerable period, during which inevitable changes have taken place in the County ; for instance, Lord Addington and Colonel Blewitt are non-residents in Buckinghamshire at the present time, Mr. Waldorf Astor represents Plymouth in the House of Commons ; while, among the regrettable losses made bythe hand of death this year must be numbered Sir John Aird and Sir Charles Robert Pigott. County Article Clx Countp- The Literary Side of Buckingamshire — Religion and Politics — Episodes of the Civil War— Early History — Quaint Feudal Tenures — Things Agricultural — The Chiltern Hundreds — Manufactures — The Story of the Townships — Local Legends, Customs and Terms, Origin of the Swan of Buckingham. CO the pastoral beauty of Buckinghamshire, English Literature stands permanently indebted. Memories of Milton cluster thick around the picturesque little villages of Horton and Chalfont St. Giles in the southern part of the County, the glowing, fairy-like beauty of the former, especially favoured by the nightingale, in all probability evoked those exquisite lines, beginning : — O Nightingale, that on yon bloomy spray Warblest at eve, when all the woods are still. Easily identified too are the "Meadows trim and daisies pied " of that district with those well-known lines in L' Allegro, which is believed to have been written in the five years succeeding Milton's stay at Cambridge, when he was resident here, together with Comus, Lycidas, and II Penseroso. To this day, in Chalfont St. Giles, an ancient cottage is proudly shown ; and — accredited with the honour of having sheltered the poet in 1665, when he returned once more to Buckinghamshire, to escape the plague, then raging in London, is now transformed into a Museum for Relics. In the Chalfont district, then the very centre of Puritan feeling in Buckinghamshire, Pavadise Lost was brought forth, and Paradise Regained conceived, the last, as Milton generously admitted, being the outcome of his Quaker friend, Ellwood's, suggestion : — " Thou hast said much here of Paradise Lost, but what hast thou to say of Paradise found ?" Needless to add the Museum above mentioned contains rare and ancient editions of the first, and a first edition of the second. Scarcely five miles from Horton as the crow flies, is Stoke Pogis, once the home of the poet Gray, and generally regarded as the scene of his Elegy, whilst only a mile further west are Burnham Beeches, since 1880 purchased by the Corporation of London for public use. Gray's eloquent description of their delights in a letter to Horace Walpole written in 1737, holds good today : — I have at the distance of half a mile, through a green lane, a forest (the vulgar call it a common) all my own, or at least as good as so, for I spy no human thing in it but myself. It is a little chaos of mountains and precipices vale and hill are covered with most venerable beeches that, like most other ancient people, are always dreaming out their old stories to the winds. Beaconsfield recalls the poet Waller, who, as lord of the manor, built a mansion there, and now sleeps within its churchyard beneath the shadow of a fine walnut tree. Through the generosity of Edmund Burke, whose connection with the now demolished Gregories is well known, the poet Crabbe was afforded a temporary home in the great statesman's Buckinhamshire home, and cheered and raised from the destitute condition of an unknown, unheard singer, to independence. Around Marlow many poets and men of letters made their abode, including Langley, the author of The Hundreds of Desborough, the poet Shelley, who composed the greater part of The Reroll of Islam lulled to the life of a recluse for the time being, cradled in his boat, on the bosom of the silvery Thames ; while Slough is as inseparably connected with the astronomical labours of the Herschels as the memory of Isaac Disraeli is with Bradenham. Perhaps Cowper, the poet of Olney, held the secret of so great an assemblage of famous names within the confines of one county, when he sang in The Task : — Nor rural sights alone, but rural sounds Exhilarate the spirit, and restore The tone of languid Nature. In the absolute peace of Olney, where, as the poei wrote : — " Occurrences here are as rare as cucumbers at Christmas " ; Cowper worked and songht to achieve his greatest object : — the amelioration of the social condition of its inhabitants. Judging by all accounts, they needed it. His red brick house still occupies its place in the old market square, and behind is the garden, with the summer house, the birthplace of John Gilpin, and where he kept his famous hares. Later, on his removal to Weston Underwood, about a mile away, Cowper's description may be taken as typical of the village at the present time : — "We dwell," he wrote, "in a neat and comfortable abode, in one of the prettiest villages in the kingdom. It affords opportunity for walking at all seasons, abounding in beautiful grass grounds which encompass it on all sides to a considerable distance. These grounds are skirted by woods of great extent." To complete the picture in the poet's words : — Here Ouse, slow winding through a level plain Of spacious meads with cattle sprinkled o'er, Conducts the eye along his sinuous course Delighted. A couplet on the window shutter of that house reveals the poet's heart-felt sorrow on being compelled to leave the home he had learnt to love in his latter days ; — Farewell, dear scenes, for ever closed to me ; Oh I for what sorrows must I now exchange ye. He had a presentiment lie would never look again on Western Underwood, which proved correct, for five years later, in 1800, he passed from the world at East Dereham in Norfolk. Grendon Underwood, on the Western borders of Bucks, or in the old records, Grendon under Bernwood (from its position below the beginning of Bernwood Forest) enjoys a threefold distinction. The first connects Shakespeare with the village, alleging, according to some authorities, that he used to stay there on his way to and from London, and that Midsummer Night's Dream and Much Ado about Nothing first saw the light at Grendon. Other, and less ambitious variations of the tradition content themselves by stating that the original of Dogberry and Verges was to be found in the Grendon constable, who arrested Shakespeare for sleeping in the village church on one occasion. From this version of the story, the poet's funds would not appear to have permitted a night's lodging at an inn. At all events, halfway down the village is part of what was once the Ship Inn, and is now styled Shakespeare's House, the whole authority for the tradition appearing to consist in a statement of the Antiquarian Aubrey's to the effect that Shakespeare derived some of his humour in A Midsummer Night's Dream from the Grendon constable, whose acquaintance he chanced to make when breaking his journey there for a night, on his way to London. As the residence of Dr. George Lipscombe, the author of the well known History of Buckingham, Grendon achieves further distinction, although he, like that other distinguished historian and antiquary, the eccentric Browne Willis, the author of The History of the Town, Hundred and Deanery of Buckingham, made little profit out of his labours. Lipscombe died in poverty, at Quainton, and Browne Willis, a prolific writer, acknowledged that, with the exception of one book, he had found himself out of pocket. Grendon's third claim to fame is scarcely as flattering as the former ones : — Grendon Underwood The dirtiest town that ever stood runs a local, and it must be confessed, unmerited couplet. Seven Prime Ministers has Buckinghamshire given to England, including the great Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beacons- field. Religion and Politics have played a great part inthehistorv of the County from the time when John Wvcliffe was Rector of Ludgershallin 1368. His influence became manifest in 1413, when numerous Lollards laid down their lives for their faith at Amersham. Again, in the next century, came a repetition of similar scenes, when in 1506 a William Tylesworth was burnt at Amersham, a peculiarly revolting feature of the proceedings bein°- that "Joan, his only daughter, and a faithful woman, was compelled with her own hands to set fire to her dear father." In 1521, his own children were forced to perform a like office for John Scrivener. That these fanatical deeds but contributed to fan the flame of religious devotion may be seen by the student of history in that significant rallying of famous Puritans on the confines of Amersham, in the neighbourhood of Chalfont St. Gile's, in the time of the Stuarts. To Cromwell the spot was endeared by ties of relationship, for Woodrow High House was the residence of his wife and daughters. General Fleetwood lived at La Vache, and Jordans recalls the persecution of the Society of Friends, and the burial place of William Perm. Looking backward, across the years, it seems part of the natural sequence of events that John Hampden's protest against the Ship Money Tax should have been lodged in this neighbour- hood. The land on which the tax was to be levied lav in the parish of Stoke Mandevilie, where, near Prestwood Common, an obelisk was erected in 1863, with the following inscription from the pen of the Lord Chief Justice Erie : — For these lands in Stoke Mandevilie JOHN HAMPDEN Was assessed in twenty shillings Ship Money, Levied by command of the King, In legal strife, He upheld the rights of the people, Under the law And became entitled To grateful remembrance. His work on earth ended After a couflict on Chalgrove Field, The 18th of June, 1643, And he rests in Great Hampden Church. The fact that Aylesbury has received an offer to erect a bronze statue in its marketplace to the memory of the Great Liberator, within the last few weeks, the whole expense to be borne by the generous donor, himself an old yeoman, is an eloquent expression of the esteem in which his memory is held in Buckinghamshire. That County, as might well be expected, suffered severely during the Civil War. Speaking generally, it is noticeable that while the towns were for the most part on the side of the Parliamentarians, the countryside and villages declared for the King. The account of Ye Battel of Alisbury 1642, is thus rendered in the Parliamentary Annals of the time: — Good and Joyful Nevves oot of Buckinghamshire, being an exact and true Relation of a Battel, stricken between Prince Robert (sic) and Sir William Balfore, Lieut. Generallto his Excellency the Earl of Essex, near Alisbury in that County, on Tuesday last the 1st November, wherein the said Sir William obtained a great and glorious victory. Newport Pagnell surrendered to the Parliamentary forces in the following year, Many of the engagements of 1644 and 1O45 were fought around Buckingham, at that time a Royalist centre, whilst Boarstall, originally held by the King, was taken by the Parliamentarians, re-taken by the Royalists, and finally its Governor, Sir William Campion, surrendered to General Fairfax in 1646 after an eighteen hours' siege. The parlous state of the Roundhead Army when lying at Great Brickhill was such that, according to a memorable letter written from that place by its Council of War to the Speaker, by reason of desertion, sickness and inadequate pay, unless a speedy improvement were effected, there would soon be no Army left. Had the Royalists at that time struck a decisive blow, history might have had a different tale to tell. But from that time on things altered for the better with the Roundhead troops, and fortune deserted the Royalists. In the fascinating Memorials of the Verney Family may be found an account of that devoted adherent to the Royalist Cause, Sir Edmund Verney, of Middle Claydon, who acted as knight marshal and standard bearer to King Charles I. at Edgehill, and laid down his life on the field for his royal master. Only his hand was found after the fray, still, according to tradition, grasping the standard. And that gallant knight had espoused the King's cause from a sense of loyalty, and despite his convictions. His son, Sir Ralph Verney, followed the Parliamentary standard. In the case of Sir Alexander Denton, his devotion to the throne cost him both his son and home. The County suffered at the hands of the soldiers of both parties during the war. Sir Bulstrode Whitelock, that great Parliamentary statesman, leftFawley Court, never to return, owing to the depredations of the Royalist troops quartered there in 1642, under Sir John Biron. The old Greenland House was almost destroyed during the siege it underwent in 1644 by the Parliamentarians, and after holding out for six months, Sir John d'Oyley was obliged to capitulate. The extent of the damage 7 perpetrated by Cromwell's soldiers under Colonel Purefoy to the beautiful old Church of St. Edmund's at Maid's Moreton is only too well known. And old Chicheley Hall suffered so severely at their hands that it was subsequently pulled down, and the present mansion erected in its place. The general method of procedure is frankly related in a letter written by a private Roundhead soldier, one Nehemiah Wharton, from Ayesbury, on August 10^,1642. After stating that he had left London with the Sixth Company, he adds that having reached Acton, and being belated, " they were constrained to lodge in beds whose feathers were above a yard long," which he accounted a foretaste of hardships. However, the next morning, they made matters even by pillaging the house of "one Penruddock, a papist," by reason of having been " basely affronted " by both master and dog. Next the church came in for a share of their attention, the stained glass windows suffered, and " the holy railes " were burnt. A similar programme was carried out at Chiswick, and at Hillington they " got the surplesse, to make handecherches." A further act of mischief was perpetrated at Uxbridge, where this ingenuous person owns they burnt the " service book." Taking up his pen again two days later, Nehemiah narrates another incident of their advance, the scene this time being laid at Wendover. Here it seems that one of the Company, " forgettinge that he was charged with a bullet, shot a maide through the head, and she immediately died." It is but fair to the writer to add that this, to use his own expression, made them " march very sadly two miles." By which time, the chastening effect of that untoward incident had worn off in all probability. To turn for a few minutes to the earlier history of the County is to discover that controversy has waged around the origin of the name of the shire itself. According" to Camden, 8 Buckinghamshire derives its name from the Saxon word Boccen, or Buccen, signifying Beech trees. The objection to this etymology lies in the fact that the beech clad region is mainly confined to southern Bucks. Spelman puts forward another rendering of the same word, Buccen, viz. Bucks or Deer. Those painstaking historians, the Messrs. Lysons, incline to the latter view, but advance another theory, that Boch refers to its being bock, or charter land, as opposed to folk, or copyhold land. But the modern theory favours the view that the word Bock, or Buck is derived from some Saxon chieftain, who took up his abode in this part of England, and bestowed his name upon it. Buckinghamshire's earliest inhabitants appear to have been the Cattieuchlani, supposed to be identical with the Cassii, whose king was the great British Chieftain, Cassivelaunus. It is conjectured that the remains of camps found at West Wycombe, Cholesbury, Burnham and Hanridge, are of British origin, and that the stronghold in the Chiltons called Kimble Castle, was Cymbeline's Palace, but this it is impossible to substantiate Again, Kimble has been selected as the scene of the defeat of Cymbeline's two sons, by Aulus Platius, on which occasion, one of them, Togodumnus, was slain. Grim's Dyke, too, is sometimes considered to belong to this period, but authorities are not agreed thereon. The name points to Saxon times, when its construction was attributed to the devil, or Grim, although this again is contradicted by other authorities, who state that no satisfactory explanation of the name can be given, and that possibly the dyke is not a fortification at all, but merely a territorial boundary of the Saxons. In the natural sequence of events, the Romans, having overcome the resistance of the British, constituted Buckingham- shire part of their province of Flavia Caesariensis. Traces of earthworks dating from this period occur, the remains of Roman villas have been found at Latimers and High Wycombe, including a beautiful tessalated pavement at the latter. Watling Street and Akeman Street crossed the County, the Ouse and Ouzel being spanned by the former at Stony and Fenny Stratford respectively. Fierce resistance met the invading Saxon in the sixth century ^ and it was only after a severe struggle that Cuthwolf, the brother of King Ceawlin, took possession of Aylesbury in 571. Later, at the beginning of the tenth century, Edward the Elder made a four weeks' stay in Buckingham, where he fortified the Ouse on each side of its banks against the Danes, who also raised similar fortifications along the banks of the river in this vicinity. Edward the Confessor iiad a royal palace at Brill, on the western borders of Bucks, and in the neighbourhood of what was afterwards known as Boarstall, where, from the vantage ground of a thick wood, a gigantic boar terrorised the countryside, until Nigel, the huntsman entrapped and killed the monster, for which service he received the honour of knighthood from the King, who gave to him and his heirs for ever Hule Wood, and an arable tract of land called Derehide, together with the custody of Bernwood Forest. Upon the land granted by the King, Nigel built a lodge called "Boarstall" in memory of the deed that had occassoned the grant. In 1010 Thurkill the Dane overran Buckinghamshire, which thereafter remained to some extent in the hands of the invaders, and later formed part of the possessions of Earl Leofwine, the brother of Harold, and son of the great Earl Godwin. With the Norman Conquest came great changes in the ownership of the county. To the great Walter Giffard, the trusted friend and counsellor of W T illiam I. with whom indeed he claimed kinship through their common ancestor, Herfast the Forester, the Norman King gave no less than forty eight manors in Buckinghamshire ; the King's halfbrother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux held twenty six, and Geoffrey, Bishop of Constance eighteen. To the Giffards belongs the distinction of being the first to enjoy the ( 1 title of Earl of Buckingham. It is by no means clear from ancient chronicles, but it would appear that there were three generations of the same name. The first, the Conqueror's friend, adviser and standard bearer on the field of Senlac, was already aged at the time of the invasion, and therefore it is conjectured that the title was bestowed upon his son, also Walter Giffard, whose son, Walter, took part in the battle of Brenville in nig, when the French King Louis VI. was defeated, and, dying without issue in 1 164, the third Walter Giffard was buried, according to some accounts, in Notley Abbey, which he and his wife, Ermengarde, had founded a short time before, so that continual prayers might be offered up for the souls of Henry II. and his wife, Eleanor of Guienne, together with those of the Giffard ancestors. Bishop Odo's tenure was short lived, and after an attempt to enforce the claims of William II's elder brother, Duke Robert, to the English throne, this militant ecclesiastic received sentence of banishment and his estates consequently escheated to the crown. Another feature in connection with the Norman Feudal System was the quaint tenures by which some of the manors came to be held for generations. Farnham Royal, for instance, was held for the service of providing a glove for the King's right hand, on the occasion of his Coronation, and supporting his left arm during the ceremony, whilst he continued to hold the royal sceptre. Water Eaton, now but a hamlet of Bletchley, was the principal manor in former days, and was held for the service of keeping a falcon for the King's use. On the day that the bird was carried to court, the lord of that manor could claim a horse and trappings, the royal table itself as well as the tressels together with the table cloth, and all the vessels wherewith the King had been served that day, in addition to a cask of wine, so soon as it had been tasted by his royal master. 1 1 The lord of the manor of Water Hall was required to perform the somewhat inexplicable service of finding a man on a saddleless horse, providing an arrow without a head, also a bow without a string. The cross at Monk's Risborough is kept in order by the lord of the manor as a condition of tenure. Aylesbury Manor was formerly held for a dual service that varied according to the seasons, and depended on the date of the King's visit to that town. Should the monarch elect to come in the winter, the lord of the manor was constrained to find straw for his master's bed, together with sufficient for strewing over his chamber floor, and three eels, the last presumably for culinary purposes. The variation produced by a summer visit, was grass for carpeting the royal sleeping apartment, two green geese for the larder, in addition to sufficient straw for the King's bed. A cautious stipulation was attached to this tenure, to the effect that the service was not to be claimed more than three times a year, in order to prevent the royal appearances becoming inconveniently frequent. Traces of Hanslope Castle still remain at Castle Thorpe on the borders of Northamptonshire, once the stronghold of the Mauduits, and held against King John in the last year of his reign, during his war with the barons, until taken by the King's general Fawkes de Brent, when it was demolished. Buckingham had scant peace in those days. Again, in 1223, England being still in a state of great unrest, Richard Sward and others took opportunity to lay waste Richard, Earl of Cornwall's lands near Brill, and set fire to his houses. Chenies, formerly called Iselhampstead, was a royal palace in the days of King Edward I. Prince's Risborough is said to have been the palace of the Black Prince, hence its name, and in a field 1 2 hard by the church, traces of what was formerly a castle are still to be seen. Near Stony Stratford, once graced by a Queen Eleanor cross is a tree called " The Queen's Oak," that is said to derive its name from having been the spot where the Yorkist King, Edward IV first encountered the beautiful Elizabeth Woodville. The next act in that drama took place at Grafton Regis Church, some five miles distant, on May morning, of 1464, when she was privately married to the King, the only witnesses of the wedding being the Duchess of Bedford, and two other ladies, in addition to the buy who served the nuptial mass. It is significant that their son, the boy King Edward V was born in sanctuary during his father's exile in 1470, and in 1483 was arrested by his Uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, at Stony Stratford. Other interesting historical memorials are the gigantic yew at Ankerwycke, supposed to have been the trysting place of King Henry VIII. and the unfortunate Anne Boleyn ; Bradenham, where Edward, Lord Windsor entertained Queen Elizabeth with much ceremony, while Quarrendon recalls that Queen's Champion, Sir Harry Lee, who was further honoured by a two day's visit from her Majesty, and his love for Anne Vavasour. In the once magnificent chapel of St. Peter at Quarrendon, of which today but a few roofless arches remain, was their tomb, with the following inscription : — Underneath this stone entombed lies a fair and worthy dame, Daughter to Henry Vavasour, Ann Vavasour her name, She living with Henry Lee, for love long time did dwell, Death could not part them, but here they rest within one cell. As regards physicial features, Buckingham has no river of its own. The Ouse traverses the northern part of the County, from Brackley to Stony Stratford, and thence pursues a tortuous course to Newport Pagnell, through Olney, and so into Bedfordshire. The Grand Junction Canal too passes through Ivinghoe, Fenny and Stony Stratford, and connects vvitli Wendover, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The beautiful southern portion of the County is watered by the Thames, and its tributaries, of which the Thame waters the fertile Vale of Aylesbury, and the rare merits of the Creslow Pastures, those feeding grounds for the cattle for the royal table from the time of Oueen Elizabeth to Charles II. are noted As late as the beginning of the last century, they were rented by a farmer named Westcar, whose success in stock raising was such that in the space of twenty two years his valuable and unusually fine stock gained no less than forty two prizes in the Smithfield Shows. Within Whitchurch Church is his monument, wherein stands a herd, leaning on a staff, with sheep at his feet, and an ox in the background, and beneath runs the following inscription : — Unblemished let me live, or die unknown, Oh, grant me honest fame, or grant me none. If that were his prayer in life, his wish would seem to have been realised. The marvellous fertility of the Vale in former days led to its being considered a slur on the character of the land for a heap of manure to be seen at the edge of a field. Furthermore to even demolish an anthill, or plough in straight lines was looked upon with disfavour, whilst any attempt at irrigation was sternly discountenanced. The Vale derived sufficient moisture from the clouds, and its unquestionable fertility was considered to do all that was necessary with little human aid. The excellence of Buckinghamshire Bread and Beef has long since passed into a proverb, and neither has ever failed to meet with tin satisfaction of the dairy farmer. To the south of the Vale of Aylesbury, the Chiltern Hiils trav< im' the county, extending from Bledlow on the south west, to Ivinghoe Beacon <>n the east 904 feet high, a height that Combe Hill by Wendover exe< ds by a single Foot. The southern beech clad slopes H of the Chilterns afford vistas of endless beauty at all seasons of the year, whether robed in the tender green of early Spring, or as gleaming leafy avenues, sunlit, and shimmering with the lustre of a peridot in the glorious summer days ; resplendent in all the gorgeous colouring of autumnal reds and browns, or wrapped in the cold stately beauty of Winter, that mourning time of Ceres, bounded by the return of Proserpine, as symbolized by the Ancients' beautiful legend of the Spring's return to Earth. In early days, the almost impassable forests in the Chiltern districts, afforded the best of hiding places for hordes of freebooters. Such a menace to public safety did they become, that Leofstan, the twelfth Abbot of St. Albans, caused a considerable portion of the forest to be felled, and granted the manor of Flamstead to a knight of the name of Thurnoth, and his two companions, Waldef and Tharmen,in return for a definite promise of protection from the incursions of both robbers and wild beasts ; for both of which Thurnoth undertook to be responsible, besides making an additional present to my Lord Abbot of ' 5 ounces of gold, a fair palfrey and a grey hound.' This knight and his heirs faithfully performed their part of the bargain until the Norman Conquest, when William I. deprived them of the manor. Nevertheless, many of the early Kings saw the wisdom of Abbot Leofstan's proceedings, and the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds gradually came into being. The first duty appertaining to it was to put down the robber bands with a firm hand, all captives being hanged within sight of the woods wherein they had practised their depredations. Such was the origin of what has now become a sinecure. The Chiltern Hundreds, as they are called, comprise the Hundreds of Burnham, Desborough and Stoke, in Southern Buckinghamshire, and their stewardship — to which no duties are now attached, since the robbers have ceased to be — is accepted by any Member of Parliament, wishing to vacate his seat, as an office under Government. The acceptance of this office recalls the expedient adopted by the harassed Charles I., when he desired to rid his parliament of some the most importunate members thereof, and forthwith pricked the most recalcitrant for Sheriffs in their respective shires, whereby the indignant Sir Edward Coke was allotted to Buckingham. The latter thereupon set himself to discover some flaw in his nomination, trusting to set it on one side, and triumphantly pointed out to an amazed England that the obsolete form of the Sheriff's oath practically enjoined them to suppress the established religion by all means in their power, as it required them to put down Lollardism in all its forms. The only result was its amendment, and the angry lawyer was compelled to take the oath in its new form. But to return to the Agriculture of Bucks. Aylesbury's a Vale that walloweth in her wealth, And (by her wholesome air continually in health) Is lusty, firm and fat ; and holds her youthful strength, Thus, Drayton. The butter and cream cheese as well as calves, sheep, pigs, and othe r live stock, including the far-famed ducks, are especially noted in the Vale, whilst wheat, hay, clover, turnips and tares are largely cultivated. Condensed Milk is also prepared at Aylesbury, and in the south, the quantity of beech and other wood, gives rise to the trade peculiar to the County, the manufacture of wooden chairs and other implements, such as bowls, spades and brush handles, of which High Wycombe is the centre. Other products of the soil are sandstone, chalk, clay and gravel, also limestone, whilst the Portland beds are quarried at both Aylesbury and Hartwell. The Great Western and the London and North Western Railways afford ample facilities for rapid communication, Olney, on the northern border being also served by a Midland Line. 16 As regards manufactures, Buckinghamshire lace was wont to give employment to a great many women and girls in the north eastern part of the County, but with the advent of the machine- made variety, the trade has declined, whilst on the borders of Bedfordshire, straw plaiting and the making of straw hats and bonnets are carried on. Silk weaving, shoe-making and the manufacture of paper are among the other principal industries. The chief towns in the County are High Wycombe, the centre of the chair making industry, and deeply sensible this year of the honour bestowed upon it as the busy recipient of the order for the specially designed chairs and stools for the Coronation Ceremony; Slough, and the County Town, Aylesbury, which comes third on the list, in point of size. In former days, the manor of High, or Chipping Wycombe, was the propert) of Queen Edith, the wife of Edward the Confessor and until the Reform Act of 1867, enjoyed the distinction of being a Parliamentary Borough. It was thus represented by Edmund Waller, the poet, in 1626. Among its ancient records is an order dated 1398, giving a delightful insight into the despotic rule of the then mayor, over the borough : — That no man of whatever condition shall be delaying in the town of Wycombe after ten o'clock at night ; any wanderer ought to go out of the town, unless he have reasonable cause for wandering therein. And if anyone be so wandering about after the said hour, he shall be imprisoned by the servants of the town, and detained in prison, until he be set at liberty by the mayor (or someone holding his place) and the commonalty. The church of All Saints is the largest in the County, and contains, among much that is interesting, the only relic of an earlier church built by Swartling the Thane, at the close of the eleventh century, in the shape of a portion of a capital, in a niche in the north aisle, and some rough walling composed of boulder stone. l 7 The common rights of the Rye, a meadow of some thirty acres in extent are another survival of former days, for every inhabitant of the town has the right to pasture two cows and a heifer therein. M iny have been the interesting discoveries of Roman remains found in this neighbourhood, which derives further historical interest from the tradition that Richard, the son of the great Simon de Montfort, lived at Wreck Hall in this parish, under the name of Wellesbouine, when he returned to England after the banishment of his family. Among other interesting recollections of High Wycombe, that pleasing little town nestling in the valley of the little river Wick, surrounded by beech clad hills, is the name of John Rowell, the artist plumber of the eighteenth century, who discovered the secret of that exquisite red coloring to be seen in old stained glass windows, although this is supposed to have perished with him. Some of his work is to be seen in Hambleden Church, but, it must be added, that time has proved his colours to be very unequal. Some bear the supreme test of years, and others do not. Slough, a hamlet of Upton-cum-Chalvery, owes its develop- ment largely to the Great Western Railway, and its other claim to interest is the one previously mentioned, viz. as being the scene of the Herschels' invaluable astronomical observations. The early history of Aylesbury is connected with one of the legends of a local saint, St. Osyth, or St. Syth, as she was commonly called, whose birthplace was Ouarrendon. The daughter of Frithwald, King of the East Angles, and Wilburga, his wife, her early days were closely associated with those other two Bucking- hamshire saints, her aunts, St. Eaditha and St. Edburg, with whom her story is often confused. It would appear that her girlhood included the miraculous restoration to life three days after she had been drowned. Her betrothal to the King of Wessex was followed iS by her practically taking the veil on the day of her marriage, and she met with her death at the hands of the Danish invaders in 600. It is said that after her execution, her remains were interred in Aylesbury Church, where they were the means of performing many miracles. Of her aunt, St. Eaditha, tradition avers that Aylesbury was bestowed upon her by her father, and that she founded a nunnery in that town. It is interesting to notice that Gibb in his History of Aylesbury states that there are no less than fifty seven varieties of spelling the name of this town, the changes being rung on Aegliesburie, Aillesburie, Eillesbury, Eilesburia &c. It is unfortunate that its early records have been lost, for they could not fail to prove interesting. At one time Sir Thomas Boleyn, the father of Anne Boleyn was lord of Aylesbury, and later, it passed to the Packingtons, who continued to hold the manor for over two hundred and fifty years. How supreme their influence was in earlier days may be judged from the following extract from a letter to be seen in the Chapel of the Rolls, among the returns of Parliamentary Writs in the reign of Oueen Elizabeth : — To all Christian people, to whom this present writing shall come : I, Dame Dorothy Packington, late wife of Sir John Packington, Knight, lord and owner of the town of Aylesbury, send greeting. Know ye me, the said Dorothy Packington, to have chosen, named and appointed my trusty and well-beloved Thomas Litchfield and George Burden Esqs. to be my burgesses of my said town of Aylesbury And whatever the said Thomas and George, Burgesses, shall do in the service of the Queen's Highness in that present Parliament to be holden at Westminster, I, the same Dorothy Packington, do ratify and approve to be my own act, as fully and wholly as if I were present there. Truly the demands of the most advanced of modern womanhood would seem moderate as compared with the absolute and undisputed sway of this despotic Dame Dorothy. St. Mary's Church, Aylesbury, is yet another instance of the treatment meted out by the Parliamentarians during the Civil War, '9 for thereafter down to about tlio \Tnr184R, no vestige of stained glass remained in its windows, whilst the beautiful low arches between the chapel and trancepts were for some unknown reason filled up level with the wall. The church moreover, possesses a fine peal of eight bells, of which the town is justly proud, each bearing its own inscription : — i. I mean to make it'understood, That though I'm little, yet I'm good. 2. If you have a judicious ear, You'll own my voice is sweet and clear. 3. Such wondrous power to music's given, It elevates the soul to heav'n. 4. Music is medicine to the mind. 5. Praise ye' the Lord. 6. The name of the foundeis and date only (Pack and Chapman of London, 1773.) 7. You singers all that prize Your health and happiness, Be sober, merry, wise, And you'll the same possess. 8. In wedlock's bands, all ye who join With hands, your heart unite ; So shall our tongues combine To laud the nuptial rite. The churchyard in former days was used for almost every conceivable purpose. Besides being the resort of the least desirable characters in Aylesbury, all kinds of sports were held therein, floggings were administered to miscreants, and during the Borough Elections, candidates were wont to address their constituents from an ancient tomb that has since been removed. Nor in connection with the political fortunes of Aylesbury must the name of the notorious John Wilkes, the editor of the "North Briton" be forgotten. West of the churchyard stands the Prebendal House, brought to him in marriage by Mary Mead, the wife, whose family influence secured Wilkes' election for the town 20 The circumstances connected with the burning of No. 45 of his paper by the common hangman, containing his criticism of the Treatv of Paris at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763 have passed into history, as has the cry raised subsequently of ' Wilkes and liberty,' that converted the member for Aylesbury into a stalking horse for much national discontent. And Wilkes himself after under going out-lawry and imprisonment, represented Middlesex for many years in the House of Commons, and in 1774 was elected Lord Mayor of London. The virtue of Aylesbury Ale has been celebrated in local verse: — If you've any disorder, Or feel out of order, There's a cure safe and certain that never will fail ; Contradict it who pleases. What cures all diseases, Is a plentiful dose of good Aylesbury ale. Among other important buildings in modern Aylesbury, is the handsome County Hall, on the south east side of the old Market Square. The Royal Bucks Hospital, containing eloquent memorials of past generosity in the shape of the Verney Ward for Men, the Lee Ward for Women, and the Erie Reading Room. The Mechanics Institute is a fine building erected entirely at the expense of that most generous of landowners, Lord Rothschild, from whom the town holds it at a peppercorn rent. Opened in 1880, the building at that time comprised a good reading room on ground floor, an excellent library on the second, consisting of between two and three thousand volumes, contained in oak and glass bookcases, the gift of Lady Rothschild ; and in 1903 a caretaker's residence, together with card and billiard rooms, and a club room, were added. Aylesbury has much cause to remember the Rothschild family with gratitude, and since 1865 has confined its represent- ation in Parliament to their unfailing care. The Victoria Club for Working Men was instituted by the late Baron Ferdinand 21 James Rothschild, the husband of Evelina, the daughter of the late Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild, and the founder of the Evelina Hospital for Children at Southwark, in memory of his wife, whose death occurred in 1866. The town also owes its public Swimming and Slipper Baths largely to the generosity of the same Baron Ferdinand, who contributed ^2,000 out of the total cost of nearly £"3,000 towards their erection. Four miles from Aylesbury lies Aston Clinton, formerly the residence of Louisa, the late Dowager Lady de Rothschild, the wife of Sir Anthony de Rothschild, uncle of the present Lord Rothschild, who died in 1876. As a memorial to her husband, this lady built and presented Anthony Hall to the village in order that they might have adequate accommodation for local entertain- ments, and on her death in September, 1910, it was decided to erect a handsome drinking fountain at Aston Clinton in memory of one who had had the welfare of the village sincerely at heart. It was the well-known Mr. Leopold de Rothschild, the brother of Lord Rothschild, who bestowed Charlotte Cottage on the village of Wing, so that the necessary hospital accommodation might be available for his poorer neighbours in case of need. But time would fail to tell all this great family have done for Buckinghamshire, even among the instances that are known to have emanated from them. Their philanthropy is of the selfless kind that frequently shelters itself under the cover of anonymity. Although rich in mediaeval churches, scarcely a trace is left of the many religious houses founded in different parts of the County prior to the Dissolution, such as the Abbeys of the Cistercians at Biddlesden and Medmenham, of the Augustine Canons at Notley and Missenden, and the priories at Ravenstone and Chetwode. In former days the greater part of Buckinghamshire was included in the diocese of Lincoln, and later was transferred to the 22 See of Oxford. At the present time there is a movement on foot to make the County into a separate diocese, on the ground that to accord its 213 parishes a bishop, a city and a cathedral all its own, would be no inconsiderable advantage to its spiritual needs. Notwithstanding its paucity of castled ruins and memorials of a monastic past, Buckingham is replete with interest. The village of Lavendon in Northern Bucks, was not the only one in former days to possess its private, albeit illegal mint, for the manufacture of XVIII Century Tradesmen's tokens, their origin being the difficulty of providing for small change. At Wolverton in North West Bucks, are the huge workshops of the London and North Western Railways, and this is the resting place of the Royal trains when not in use. Here, too, the Government Registered Envelopes are made and printed in Messrs. McCorquodale's large factory. Newport Pagnell has a considerable lace industry, and in former days possessed a strong castle, and was the seat of a noted theological college. The records of Haversham, some three or four miles westward, reveal a remarkable entry in the book of accounts of the Surveyors of the Highways under date of December 26th, 1757 : — Wee do macke an a Greement in the Parish of Haversham that Euery man shall a Gree that John Wepster and Mathew Teagell shall lay down the Boacks in the Field to the best of their Nolige and they shall be some to the same, and Laying the penelty of five pounds to any man that shall sortyfie the same to the Ouerseers of the poor at Hanersham. Wee hose names aie under Riten detest the same. Jno. Busby Tho. Line. A strenuous time apparently was before John Wepster and Mathew Teagell, but the exact nature of their labours is difficult to determine. The historical interest of Stony Stratford has already been touched upon, but the following two epitaphs in its churchyard are worthy of mention : — from her vocation, and after a severe illness, Walter de Whyteforde resolved to follow in her footsteps, and became a monk. To the hermit of Dinton, one John Bigg, who lived the life of a recluse in an underground cave in that neighbourhood, tradition ascribed the sinister distinction of having acted as executioner to Charles I. In the days when Buckinghamshire formed part of the diocese of Lincolnshire, Bishop Henry de Burghersh, Chancellor of England occupied an episcopal palace at Fingest, and, an ardent huntsman, like many another prelate in those days, enlarged his park at the expense of the village common, an act of injustice that so trouble 1 him in the next world that his uneasy ghost gave the neighbourhood no rest until the Canons of Lincoln, divining cause of their former Bishop's disquietude, restored the common to its rightful owners, and gave his spirit peace. Belief in witchcraft died hard in Buckinghamshire, and as late as the middle of the eighteenth century, one Susanna Hannokes, an aged resident in Wingrave, in the eastern part of the County was solemnly charged by a neighbour with having bewitched her spinning wheel, so that it would not turn. On the suggestion of her husband, she was gravely weighed against the church bible. The poor old lady naturally proved the heavier, and was forthwith acquitted, on the ground that anything radically evil would have been found lighter than Holy Writ. Formerly the custom of " Stephening " obtained at Drayton Beauchamp, and on St. Stephen's Day the villagers were wont to make their appearance at the Rectory, and consume as much bread and cheese as they thought fit, at the Rector's expense. "Buttying" too was another old Buckinghamshire custom, and referred to the serious business of tunning the ale brewed from the malt contributed by parishioners in addition to tithes, and destined for consumption at the Wakes, or feasts. 26 Bull Baiting was popular generally, especially at Aylesbury and Buckingham, and the old Bull Ring still exists in the latter town. The Rhyne Toll of Chetwode is a curious survival of ancient times, when the lord of the manor was empowered to levy toll at the rate of two shillings per score on all cattle and pigs passing through his townships between October 30th and November 7th. Usually nowadays the toll is compounded for by a fixed payment on the part of the farmers of one shilling each ; but every year, as the 30th of October comes round, a horn is blown at nine o'clock in the morning from Buckingham church wall, a distribution of gingerbread and beer follows, and when a similar proceeding has been enacted on the Oxfordshire boundary of the County, the beginning of the Rhyne is solemnly proclaimed. "Processioning" is much favoured in Buckinghamshire, but the custom sufficiently explains itself. On Palm Sunday, the children in the Westbury district would be much disappointed were they not presented with figs. May Day too affords them further opportunities for rejoicings. Garlands are carried from house to house, to the accompaniment of a simple song, the first two verses of which run as follows : — Good morning, ladies and genltemen, I wish you a happy May ; I have brought yoa my May garland Because it is May Day, Remember us poor Mayers all ; And thus do we begin, To lead our lives in righteousness, Or else we die in sin. The lace makers too were wont to " keep Catern," in former times, in honour of St. Catherine, the patron saint of their calling. They had their special songs whilst plying their bobbins, such as ; — 27 Nineteen long lines being over my doun, The faster I work it'll shorten my score, But if I do play, it'll stick to a stay, So high ho, little fingers, and twank it away. Two of the quaintest customs hail from Eton, that centre of learning, founded by Henry VI. " Hunting the Ram ' was abolished in the middle of the eighteenth century, in consequence of that frantic animal making good his escape over the Thames and so into Windsor The origin of the custom lay in the fact that the Provost and Fellows of Eton held a manor by this peculiar tenure. Formerly on Whit Thuesday, once every three years the Eton " Monte m ' was celebrated, when scholars attired in every variety of fancy costume, proceeded to Salt Hill, in the neighbour- hood, and demanded contributions, termed " Salt " from all and sundry ; the proceeds, which frequently reached four figures, were handed over to the Captain of the school for his expenses at Cambridge. The facilities for rapid communication of the present day have tended more than any other cause to decrease the local vocabulary of the County. But in the neighbourhood of the Ouse, the Will o' the Wisp is still known as " Jenny Bunting," whilst among other terms more or less peculiar to the shire are " chibble," that is to nibble like a mouse, " unked," in the sense of anything odd, or unusual. A " sleepy mouse " fittingly signifies a dormouse, and a "wum' : is the little ripple occasioned by any disturbance on the surface of the water. " Shig Shag Day " is the 29th of May, " shig shag " being the local name for an oak tree. From the marriage of Eleanor de Bohun in 1374 with Thomas of Woodstock (subsequently Earl of Buckingham) the youngest son of Edward III., whose daughter, Anne, married into the Stafford family, her son, Humphrey being created Duke of Buckingham in 1444, it came about that, in process of time, the 28 family badge of the Bohuns, a swan, was adopted as the emblem of the County. As early as 1415, Drayton describing the embarkation of troops for France prior to the Battle of Agincourt, writes: — The mustered men of Buckingham are gone Under the swan, the arms of that old town. In peace and in war the swan has since presided over the varied fortunes of the fascinating County of Buckinghamshire. Under the spell of its influence some of England's sweetest singers have poured forth their immortal lays; in history it has been symbolical of much that makes for constitutional advance and the administration of justice ; while the visions of haunting loveliness afforded by the Thames Valley in this County of the Swan have been, and always will be the source of inspiration of many an artist. -v/ vj^ 29 3° Yeomanry Article Cbe Ropal Buckiiigftamsbire hussars Imperial yeomanry. This section is devoted to the Records of the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, contributed by Major Delap, and fully illustrated from special drawings made by him, all hitherto unpublished. These illustrations are unique, depicting the various uniforms of the Yeomanry of the County, to the study of which Major Delap has devoted long and special attention. T^LTHOUGH this regiment has not published its records, the Pi little that is known about it shows its past to have been most interesting. The sense of impending danger from the French Revolution was felt early in Buckinghamshire, when the noblemen and gentle- men of the County, knowing well the excellent spirit of their friends and tenants, took steps to bring about the embodiment of a Yeomanry rorps. The County of Bucks was one of the first to raise Yeomanry in response to Pitt's appeal, a meeting being called 3 1 by Charles Clowes, Esq., the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, in the County Hall at Aylesbury, which was held on May 3rd, 1794 — Saturday (being then, as now, the market day, when yeomen and county gentlemen might be expected in the town), "to consider such measures as might be thought fit to be adopted by the County for the internal defence of the kingdom at the present crisis." To this meeting were invited the nobility, gentry, clergy, freeholders, and yeomen of the County. A variety of resolutions were proposed and carried, the most important of which were : — 41 That the gentlemen, yeomen, and substantial inhabitants of the County be invited to enrol them- selves in their several respective neighbourhoods into different troops of men, armed, and mounted on horse- back, attached to one general body, to be known by the name of ' The Armed Yeomanry of the County of Bucks,' under the command of the Lord Lieutenant of the said County. That each troop consist of from fifty to eighty men, officers included. The officers to receive temporary commissions from the Lord Lieutenant during the war ; the muster rolls for the same period likewise to be approved by him." This was agreed to. Then followed other resolutions to the effect that they should only be required to march out of the County on the appearance of actual invasion, when one-fourth of each troop was to remain within the County for the suppression of riot or tumult. In either of these cases, but in no other case, the men to receive pay as Cavalry, and be subject to the provisions of the Mutiny Act. Each man was to attend when called upon, mounted upon a serviceable gelding or mare not less than fourteen hands high, and to wear a uniform provided at the expense of the County subscription, with arms and accoutrements. The dress of the " Armed Yeomanry of the County of Bucks " was a green coat, faced with black velvet and gold buttons, all alike for officers and men ; a buff waistcoat ; a hat trimmed with bearskin, all alike for 32 officers and men, except in the plume, which in the case of officers was to be white, non-coms, green and white, and for the privates green ; goatskin furniture thrown over the saddle, a good sword and shoulder-belt, with a pistol, pair of holsters, and ammunition pouch and belt. The men had to provide their own saddles, bridles, boots, breeches, and gloves, all of leather. The first picture represents an officer of this period. The following is a list of the officers taken from a Yeomanry List now in the War Office. The dates are somewhat at variance with what is stated above — 1793. Fencible Cavalry, Buckinghamshire. Colonel, George Marquis of Buckingham Lieut. -Colonel, Lovell Badcock. Major, Henry Tomkins Captain William Loftus Captain Richard Dayrell Captain Robert Wegncke Captain Sir W. Young, Bt. Captain Scrope Bernard Captain Benjamin Day Captain Lt. George E. Temple Lieut. Robert Flower ... Lieut. Stanhope Badcock Lieut. George Wood ... Lieut. James Harper ... Lieut. Charles Wilkinson Lieut. Benjamin Vasser Lieut. Robert Browne... Lieut. Phillip Hills ... Lieut. Henry Dayrell ... Lieut. Richard Gardner Ensign W. B. Fenton ... Ensign T. B. Badcock Ensign Richard Dayrell Ensign Thos. Osbaldeston Ensign Henry Forbes ... Ensign Henry Way Adjt. L. Stanhope Badcock Qr.-Mr. Robert Flower Surgeon W. B. Fenton 1780 1778 1780 1779 1780 1785 1786 J793 1793 1762 1780 1781 1788 1790 1792 1793 1788 1791 1792 1793 1779 1760 1788 33 Such was the equipment of the first Yeomanry establishment in the County, which was embodied on May 13th, 1795. with the Lord Lieutenant for Commanding Officer, and George Marquess of Buckingham as one of the captains, while* the Sheriff, Mr. Clowes, contented himself with the rank of lieutenant. The troops were frequently called out and exercised, and at various times were brought together to form a regiment. Six troops were quickly raised under Captains George Marquess of Buckingham, Sir William Young, Bt., William Praed, Sir John Dashwood, Thos. Grenville, and Render Mason. On Feb. 22nd, 1797, an adjutant was appointed to overlook the drill of the regiment, one Capt. Mansell Dawkins Mansell. In 1798 we find the Marquess of Buckingham, Thomas Grenville, and Lord Grenville majors in the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, which had increased to sixteen troops, with an establishment of 636 rank and file. Of the sixteen troops Newport Pagnall furnished two, and Winslow, Olney, Fenny Stratford, Stoney Stratford one each in the northern part of the County. In South Bucks, Amersham, Eton and Taplow each raised one troop ; Burnham and Desborough furnished two troops each ; while in Middle Bucks, Aylesbury and Buckingham supplied troops of Yeomanry. About this period the rank of captain-lieut. appears, being a lieutenant who commanded a field officer's troop in the field, the lieutenant-colonel and majors retaining the command of their troops, the captain-lieutenant only commanding the troop when the regiment was assembled, and the field officer being consequently required to perform their regimental staff duties. Nothing appears to have occurred except drills, at which the troops were kept pretty constantly till 1S02, when, on the Peace of Amiens being signed, the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry apparently discontinued their services, but only for a brief time ; war with 34 France began again in May, 1803. The threats of invading England were louder and stronger than before, so the Bud<s yeomen were organised in three distinct corps — viz., the 1st, or Southern Regiment ; 2nd, or Middle Regiment ; and the 3rd, or Northern Regiment. On July 16th, 1803, George Marquess of Buckingham and seventy-seven officers were gazetted to the three Bucks Yeomanry regiments, thirty to the South, twenty-five to the Middle, and twenty-two to the Northern Regiment. The Marquess of Buckingham was gazetted Colonel-in-Chief of all of the three regiments, which were commanded as follows : William Wendham Lord Grenville, Lieut. -Colonel Commanding 1st (Southern) Regiment ; the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, Lieut. -Colonel Commanding 2nd (or Middle) Regiment ; and William Praed, being Lieut. -Colonel Commanding the 3rd (or Northern) Regiment. In 1803 the Southern Bucks returned 452 of all ranks in nine troops, the Middle Regiment 370 in six troops, and the Northern Regiment 304 in six troops, being a total of 1,126 of all ranks for the County, organised in twenty-one troops. From the 2nd (or Middle) Regiment, which was raised round Aylesbury and Buckingham, as will be seen, the present Bucks Imperial Yeomanry is descended. The 1805 " Army List " shows the following officers serving in the Mid-Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. Thos. Grenville ... Major Richard Earl Temple ... Major Sir William Young Capt. Wm. Henry Freemantle Capt. George Morgan... Capt. Wm. Lowndes ... Capt. Scrope Bernard ... July 16th, 1803 July 16th, 1803 March 16th, 1804 Julv 16th, 1803 July 16th, 1803 July 16th, 1803 July 16th, 1803 35 Capt. Thomas Sheppard ... ... July 16th, 1803 Capt. John Newman ... ... ... Feb. 4th, 1804 Capt. Laver Oliver ... ... ... Feb. 4th, 1804 In addition, six lieutenants and seven cornets are shown, and the adjutant, Henry Huey, who was appointed to the corps July 16th, 1803. The arms were sword and pistol, but twelve men in troop were armed with carbines. The drills were pretty frequent and numerous, till the victory of Trafalgar barred the way to Napoleon's scheme of invasion and released the Bucks Yeomen from being held in almost immediate readiness for the field. In 1806 the strength of the Bucks Yeomanry was returned as 1,126, of which the six troops of the Mid Bucks Yeomanry Cavalry contributed 334 of all ranks. In 1808 the Mid Bucks are returned as eight troops, 378 enrolled, the County total being 1,006, in twenty-two troops, which in 1812 had fallen to 822 in twenty-two troops, the Mid Bucks standing at 270, but despite the reduced strength still maintained eight troops. On March 17th, 181 3, the Marquess of Buckingham was gazetted colonel of the three regiments. In 1813, Col. Grenville, who had commanded for ten years, and had been one of the first to raise a troop in the County in 1774, retired, and was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. William Henry Freemantle, who was gazetted to the command on June 15th of that year. In 1817 the eight troops of the regiment returned 250 effective out of the 683 Yeomen enrolled in the twenty-two troops of Bucks Yeomanry. On February 27th, 1819, the Marquess of Buckingham and Chandos assumed command of the Mid Bucks, and the same year 36 they were employed to keep the public peace within the County. As a result of their useful services their strength was increased to ten troops, which are shown in the 1820 return as 428 of all ranks, the total for the three Bucks regiments being 1,164 * n twenty-four troops. In 182 1 the Mid Bucks were employed in London on account of the disorder there. This year the title of the Mid Bucks Yeomanry Cavalry appear as the 2nd Hussar Regiment of Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry, ordered by Lord Lieutenant, February 8th, 1820, the uniform being copied from the Hussar of that period, consisting of a very handsome jacket and pelisse and the Hussar shako, the colour of the uniform being still green. It has been found impossible up to the present to discover any reliable record of the uniform of the 1st South Bucks. The following is a list of the officers in 1825 : — Colonel William Clayton Lieut. -Col. John Penn Major Charles G. Graves Capt. Thomas Buckland Capt. Edward Welles Capt. Thomas P. Wills Capt. Charles Scott Murray Capt. East George Clayton Capt. John Barnes Capt. JohnW. Kirkwall Capt. James Caledon Du Pre Lieut. Henry Chisholm Lieut. John Arnell Lieut. William Lunnon Lieut. John Nash Lieut. Rolls Lieut. Owen Wethered Cornet Henry Williams Cornet Alfred Braithwaite Cornet Thomas Shrimpton Cornet John R. Winkworth Cornet Clives Tower 1813 1819 1821 1817 1817 1819 1819 1821 1823 1825 1825 1817 37 Adjt. Richard Harreys Surgeon William Robarts The second picture shows the uniform of the 2nd Mid Bucks Hussars at this period, 1825. The details of the full dress are taken from a portrait of Captain — afterwardsColonel — George Morgan, and now at Biddlesden Park. This officer was great grandfather to the present Master of Kinloss. There is a very handsome full length portrait of the Marquis of Chandos, afterwards Duke of Buckingham, at Wotton House, and showing him in the uniform of this branch of the Regiment. Lieut. -Col. Com. The Marquis of Chandos Lieut. -Col. Geo. Lord Nugent ... Major William Selby- Lowndes ... Capt. John Newman Capt. John Powlett Capt. The Hon. Everard Arundel Capt. John Grubb Capt. William Quartley Capt. Edward Temple Capt. George Morgan Capt. Robert Bates Capt. T. T. Barnard Capt. Benjamin Vassor Lieut. Robert Miller Lieut. Robert Gray Lieut. Charles Hay ward Lieut. Walter W. Carrington ... Lieut. Thomas Fowler Lieut. George Parrott Lieut. John Brickwell Lieut. John Gray Lieut. John Newman Lieut. Samuel Dudley Lieut, Philip Box Ensign William Hay ward Ensign George Bradford Ensign John S. Gent Ensign James Harrison .. 1812 ... 1812 ... 1804 .. 1809 .. 1813 .. 1817 .. 1817 .. 1818 .. 1818 .. 1818 .. 1819 .. 1819 .. 1803 .. 1806 .. 1817 .. 1817 .. 1817 .. 1817 .. 1817 .. 1818 .. 1818 .. 1819 .. 1820 .. 1803 .. 1817 .. 1818 .. 1818 33 Ensign Charles Perkins Ensign James Senior Ensign Charles Terry Ensign Owen Wethered Ensign W. Tompkins Ensign George Bennett Ensign Edward Owen Williams Adjt. John Fellowes 1818 1818 1818 1818 1820 1820 1820 1815 The third picture shows the uniform of the 3rd North Bucks Yeomanry at this time. The details are taken from a portrait of Captain Philip Pauncefort-Duncombe of Great Brickhill Manor, and great grandfather of the present baronet. The following is a list of the officers in 1825 : — Lieut. -Col. James Blackwell Praed Major Charles Pinfold Capt. John Hall Talbot Capt. Philip D. Pauncefort-Duncombe ... Capt. Matthew Knapp Capt. George Lucas Lieut. John Garrard Lieut. Lynd Conway Gent Lieut. Charles J. Pinfold Lieut. John Drake Cornet Thomas Hall Cornet Robert Collison Cornet Edward Cowley Cornet Charles Drake Adjt. Henry Duperrier Although no mention has hitherto been made of the Bucks Horse Artillery, there appears to be no doubt that the fourth picture shows what must have been the earliest uniform worn bv that branch of the Regiment. The details are taken from an interesting old picture now in the possession of — Cole, Esq., of Bucking- ham, Lieut. -Quartermaster of the Royal Bucks Hussars. The head dress may be said to be rather that of a dragoon than of a horse artilleryman, but it has always been and still is a feature of certain Yeomanry Corps that similar discrepancies exist between 1824 1824 1807 ... 1810 1822 ... 1823 ... 1807 1810 ... 1817 1822 ... 1807 ... 1808 1822 ... 1824 1822 39 their headdress and the remainder of their uniform. The jacket and overalls are of the correct horse artillery pattern of the period of the tvvo foregoing pictures. The Bucks Horse Artillery always were listed as of the Bucks Hussars, and the difference between them and their brother officers of the hussar troops was always a regimental rather than an army one. This is in all probability the reason for the greatly preponderating numbers of the officers of the 2nd Mid-Bucks Hussars as shown in the foregoing list. In 1827 all three regiments of the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry were ordered to be disbanded ; but although the 1st (or Southern) Bucks and the 3rd (or Northern) Bucks were disbanded, the 2nd (or Middle Regiment, or Bucks Hussars as they were now also known) were retained, apparently serving without pay or allowances rather than be disbanded. In September 1830 there occurred formidable riots at Otmoor in the neighbouring County of Oxfordshire. These riots were caused by an Act of Parliament which had just been passed providing for the enclosure of many of the commons and waste lands of the County, and amongst those to be converted to agri- cultural purposes was the common of Otmoor, not far from Islip, and when the fences were put up a riotous assemblage of the indignant rural population proceeded to pull them down and destroy them. A contingent of eighty men of the Oxfordshire Yeomanry Cavalry not being considered sufficient, 150 men of the Mid Buckinghamshire Hussars were marched to the place. The Yeomen had to submit to a great deal of abuse and some stone throwing, but when the Riot Act was read they acted quietly, and about sixt) of the foremost rioters were arrested and conveyed to prison, an attempt being made to rescue them, which, however, the Yeomen beat off. Riots of serious nature now broke out amongst the rural 40 population in Buckinghamshire, and during November, 1830 a severe encounter occurred at Avington, the seat of the Duke of Buckingham, where one hundred and fifty farmers had assembled encamped round the house. The place was attacked by a mob, who were only beaten off after a sharp fight and the arrival of the Yeomanry. No lives were lost, however, but several of the rioters were taken prisoners. Some further rioting took place in the County in the winter but by January, 1831 peace had been restored by the local Yeomanry. The ten troops of the 2nd (or Middle) Bucks, as the corps was still officially known, were returned at 511 of all ranks, the only other corps in the County being the Taplow Troop, a survival of the 1st (or South) Bucks Yeomanry, numbering some forty-six, and bringing up the County total to 557 effectives. Between 1831 and 1835 the regiment was employed in aid of the Civil Power at Hounslow, Aylesbury, and Chesham. In 1837 the strength was reduced to eight troops, and the strength was returned at 464 of all ranks, and in 1838 at 459. On September 22nd, 1839, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, was appointed Colonel of the regiment in command, Lieut. -Colonel George Morgan being second in command, his commission dating from January 6th, 1831. In 1843 the regiment was again employed on riot duty, and was thanked officially for its services Thomas Tyringham Bernard, M.P., was gazetted Lieutenant-Colonel (second in command), vice Morgan, on August 9th, 1843. The earliest Bucks Yeomanry uniform worn by any one now living was a light dragoon uniform which is shown in the fifth picture. Major Small of Buckingham served in the Regiment during this period and from information kindly supplied by him 4' we learn that prior to 1844 the whole Regiment wore this dress, that in that year the Hussar troops were formed, but that the remainder of the corps — except, of course the Artillery — continued as light dragoons until about 1856, when they were changed into Hussars, as was the case with several regiments of the regular Cavalry. How the old 2nd Mid Bucks Hussars became Light Dragoons is veiled in historic mystery. The uniform in 1844 was as follows : The officers having a dark green hussar jacket braided with five rows of hussar braiding, with cap and olivets in silver, dark green collar and cuffs, ornamented with silver lace, gold and crimson hussar sashes, silver sword belt and sabretache slings, silver pouch belt, green overalls with silver stripe ; the dress sabretache was dark green, with mono- gram "V.R." in silver and crown in gold; the pelisse was dark green, trimmed with black astrakan and black braiding, being slung with green cords with tassels, the shakos being of Hussar pattern with silver band round the top and lines of silver cord, the badge being a Maltese cross, the shako being surmounted with a plume of green cock's feathers. In undress a green frock coat, with two rows of silver buttons, was worn, with heavy silver shoulder scales and dark Royal blue collar and cuffs ; the overalls were blue with double scarlet stripes, and the forage cap without peak dark green with silver band, button, and welt, white pouch belts with black pouch, on which was a Maltese cross as a badge, and black sword belt sabretache and sabretache slings completed the undress; the sword knots were gold and the gloves white for all occasions. The officers' horse furniture was a dark green saddle cloth edged with silver braid, over which was a black lambskin edged with red cloth, the harness being of black leather. The uniform described above is shown in the sixth picture and worn by the figure on the right. From information kindly supplied by Major Small we learn that it was confined to one Squadron, and that was the Squadron detailed for duty at Stowe on the occasion of her Majesty Queen 42 Victoria's visit in 1844. Messrs Fores of Picadilly published a coloured print of two officers and a private at this time. There were various incongruities in the uniform. The officers' pelisses and jackets did not correspond. The trimming of the jackets of the rank and file did not correspond with that of the officers, and the men's plumes were red and white while the officers were green. The left hand figure shows an officer of the Horse Artillery wearing a jacket of the pattern adopted by the Royal Horse Artillery in 1855, but as the Hussar uniform existed until after this date it is not an anachronism to place them in the same picture. Messrs. Fores also published a coloured print of this uniform. The N.C.O.'s and men wore dark green shakos ornamented with red and white plumes of horsehair, a Maltese cross, white lines and white band round the shako, green Hussar jacket closely braided with white cords, and three rows of white metal buttons, and blue collar and cuffs, a dark green pelisse trimmed with black fur, and white cord and three rows of buttons, blue overalls with a broad scarlet stripe. The cross belts and sword belts and slings were white, with black pouches and sabretaches, and hussar sashes of crimson and yellow were worn ; the harness was black, with black lamb skins edged with scarlet, and dark green saddle cloths edged with a broad scarlet band. The Artillery troops of the regiments wore busbies, in front of which was the badge of a silver gun, with scarlet tags and red and white plumes, the officers as well as the men wearing closely-braided jackets with three rows of buttons, and the saddle cloths were also ornamented with a gun. The strength in 1844 was 448 of all ranks in eight troops. The year 1845 was a triumphant one for the corps. On January 15th that year her Majesty Queen Victoria and the Prince Albeit visited the Duke of Buckingham at Stowe. They proceeded from London to Wolverton by rail, and from thence drove to Stowe escorted by the Buckinghamshire Hussars, and the corps remained on duty there in attendance till the 9th. The result was that the 43 " London Gazette " of June ioth stated that her Majesty had been pleased to confer the title of " Royal " upon the regiment, and the 2nd or Hussar Regiment of Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry was now known officially as the Royal 2nd Buckinghamshire Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry. The regiment was now armed with carbines instead of pistols. In 1847 the Royal Mid-Bucks Yeomanry were again thanked for their services in aid of the civil power. In April 1848, when the Chartists were threatening to overwhelm London with fire and slaughter, the regiment of House- hold Cavalry usually stationed at Windsor to guard the Royal Castle were withdrawn to protect the metropolis, and their place supplied by the Royal Mid-Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry, who performed all the duties of guard mounting and escorts usually undertaken by the Life and Horse Guards. No Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry has ever been so honoured. The country at the time was in a state of semi-rebellion and the French monarch had already been forced to leave his country, and nobody quite knew what would happen in England ; and it was thought by those in authority that the country was on the eve of a revolution. It was no ordinary duty that befell the Bucks Yeomanry ; and if it had not been for the measures taken by the Duke of Wellington and the soldiers in London and the loyalty of the middle classes, the Royal Bucks might have been escorting their Sovereign to a place of safety or guarding the Royal Castle against a revolutionary attack. But, owing to the stern and strong attitude taken up by the Government, all passed off quietly and the truly Royal Yeomen returned to their homes. Captain and Adjutant Fellows died in 1848, he having been adjutant of the regiment for thirty-three years ; and on September 1 5th Thomas Wells, late 4th Light Dragoons, was appointed 44 adjutant. The strength of the eight troops of the regiment in 1848 was 540 of all ranks. On April 5th, 1853, Brownlow Knox, Esq., late Scots Fusilier Guards, was gazetted major, in addition to whom a L ieutenant- Colonel was allowed to the regiment to assist Colonel the Duke of Buckingham to carry out his duties. The strength in 1854 was 540 of all ranks, in eight troops. In i860 the field officers were Colonel the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, Lieut. -Colonel T. T. Bernard, and Major Brownlow Knox. In 1861 the Duke of Buckingham died, and was succeeded by his heir, who was gazetted on May 27th, 1862, and Lieut. -Colonel Bernard also retiring, Major Brownlow Knox was gazetted Lieut. -Colonel ; and on March 1 8th the next year Captains Fred Drummond Hibbert and William Seir were gazetted Majors of the regiment ; and in 1868 Captain Reginald Calvert, late nth Hussars, was gazetted Adjutant. Largely owing to the influence of Colonel Hibbert, who had served in the Scots Greys ; the incongruities in the Hussar uniform referred to above were eliminated. The officers' jackets and pelisses were both laced in the manner which had then become regulation in the regular Army, but with five rows of lace instead of six, as was usual in Yeomanry Corps. The officers' plume was made red and white to correspond with the mens', and the jackets of the rank and file were braided to correspond with those of the officers. The size of the shako was diminished. The uniform as altered in these particulars is shown in the seventh picture. On March 12th, i;86g, Major Hibbert was gazetted Lieut. -Colonel (vice Knox retired) and to the command, the second in command being Major Knox Holmes, who was gazetted fifteen days later. About this period our alliance with France produced an effect in the dressing of the British Army. A French shaped shako was largely adopted both for Infantry and Cavalry. This influence 45 was felt in the Royal Bucks Yeomanry. The eighth picture shows an officer in full dress wearing the shako referred to with a plume of white feathers. It was at this period that the picturesque pelisse and girdle of former days were discarded. In 1871 the reorganisation of the Yeomanry took place, as a lesult of the awful lessons of the Franco-German War directing public attention to the state of the Auxiliary Forces. The Yeomanry Force were put under new regulations and the establish- ments revised, that of the 2nd Bucks and Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry as they were now called being fixed at one lieutenant-colonel, one major, eight captains, eight lieutenants, four cornets, one adjutant, one surgeon, one veterinary surgeon, one sergeant-major, eight quartermasters, eight permanent staff- sergeants, twenty sergeants, twenty corporals, one permanent trumpeter and seven yeoman trumpeters, and 400 privates, or a total of 490 of all ranks. As seen from the above, the number of cornets was reduced from one per troop to one per squadron ; the rank of cornet was shortly afterwards abolished, that of sub-lieutenant substituted which later gave place to that of second lieutenant. The headquarters in the 1871 "Army List" are shown at Buckingham, where they have ever since remained. The regiment was now armed with a really serviceable carbine, the Westley Richard, and in 1874 were second in the Lloyd-Lindsay competition at Wimbledon. In 1876 the Government decided that in future Yeomanry regiments should consist of Light Cavalry; accordingly the Artillery troop was broken up. Owing to the deep regret occasioned to many members of the Corps by the removal of the guns, the War Office authorized the formation of a Squadron which was to form on the right of the line, and to retain the privilege of wearing the Horse Artillery uniform. This practice 46 continued until about 1893, when the dress of all the eight troops was made uniform. The picture shows an officer of the Royal Bucks Hussars, but privileged to wear the Bucks Horse Artillery uniform. On March 3rd, 1877, Capt. George M. Morgan, late Captain 4th Dragoon Guards, was gazetted Major ; and on July 13th Captain the Hon. J. D. Drummond, of the 6th Dragoon Guards, was gazetted Adjutant. The strength in 1877 was 382 of all ranks, and in 1874, 415, the establishment being 498. In 1881 Snider carbines were issued. Captain H. L. Ellis, 6th Dragoons, was appointed Adjutant in 1882. The precedence of the Yeomanry regiments was settled in January, 1885, the Royal Bucks Yeomanry official data being taken as December, 1830, when the regiment was once more placed on the paid establishment, and the number allotted to the regiment was 21st. This was most unjust to the regiment, as the regiment was not disbanded in 1828 and re-raised in 1830-31, as can be proved. For instance, the title 2nd Bucks would never have been adopted if the regiment had been re-raised, seeing that there was no other Yeomanry corps with the exception of a newly-raised troop at Taplow in the County, dating from about 1830. This isolated troop is a curious and interesting feature in the history of the County. It was raised in the forties by Lord Orkney and continued under his command until about 1862. It appeared almost impossible to obtain details of their uniform but through the kindness of Mr. George Cross of Windsor, an old member of the troop, this deficiency has been supplied, and the accompanying picture shows what they looked like. About the time of Lord Orkney's retirement the Taplow troop were changed into Lancers and supplied with a uniform almost exactly like the 16th Lancers except for their plume which was white. Under the command of Captain N. G. Lambert they continued to flourish until 1868-69 when they ceased to exist. Again, the regiment was serving at the Otmoor Riots in 47 September, 1830, also the Adjutant's (John Fellows) commission at the time of his death, in 184H, was dated at 1815; and other evidence could be shown to prove the unjust way the regimental precedence was settled by the War Office authorities ; and there is little doubt that at the Public Record Office official letters could be found proving the corps' active existence during the years 1828, 1829, and 1830, as the Derbyshire and Pembrokeshire regiments of Yeomanry have been able to prove. In fact, there are several other regiments of the existing Imperial Yeomanry who can prove that they did not disband in 1828, but served free of public expense till the Government had to put them on the paid establishment in view of the great political disorder that took place in the years 1830 and 1831. Martini-Henry carbines were issued in 1886, and on December 13th of the same year the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, G.C.S.I., was gazetted Hon. Colonel of the regiment, Captain and Adjutant Henry Leslie Ellis retired in 1887, and was appointed Major of the regiment, Captain Thomas Richard Francis Brabazon Hallowes, 6th Dragoon Guards, becoming Adjutant. On April 18th George Manners Morgan was promoted Lieut. -Colonel in command, in succession to Lieut. -Colonel Hibbert, but he retired in April next year, and was appointed Hon. Colonel of the regiment, handing over the command to Major Lord Chesham, who, after serving in the Coldstream Guards, 10th Hussars, and 16th Lancers, had left the Army as a captain, joining the Bucks Yeomanry in that rank in 1879, and was gazetted Colonel on April 24th, 1889, alter some three months' service as Second Major of the corps. In June 1889 Major J. Poynter was gazetted additional Major in the corps. The title of " Hussars" which the regiment had borne from 182 1 to 1845 was now revived, and in 1889 her Majesty's permission was obtained for the regiment to be officially styled the "Royal Buckinghamshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry." The uniform in 1890 was as follows : A hussar busby with 48 scarlet bags with white tracings and boss, red and white plume and white liner and boss; dark green jackets with green collar and cuffs, with five rows of white hussar braiding, with caps and olivets, white braiding up the back and white braid on the collar and cuffs, the officer having silver braiding and cords. The overalls and pantaloons for all ranks were dark green, with double scarlet stripes and black knee boots. In undress, green round forage caps were worn, with white band and button, the officers and N.C.O.'s having silver bands. The officers' belts were silver, with green line through, and silver chains and arrows, silver sabretache slings with green line through, and bright green sabretaches with '' V.R. ' in silver, surmounted by a crown in crimson and gold. The men's belts were white, with plain black pouches, the officers' undress pouches being also black, but having the regimental badge, a silver Maltese cross ; the officers' horse furniture having the distinction of red and white throat plumes and black lambskins edged with scarlet cloth, the harness for all ranks being brown leather. This picture shows the full dress uniform worn by the six hussar troops in the eighties. All the officers alike wore the undress uniform shown on the left hand figure. The headquarters of the eight troops in 1890 were as follows: A, Tingewick; B, Stoney Stratford; C, Waddesdon ; D, Akeley ; E, Newport Pagnel ; F. Aylesbury ; G and H, Bucking- ham. The strengths for the past eleven years were as follows :- 1880 ... ... 40 1 1886 ... ... 417 1881 ... ... 429 1887 ... ••• 397 1882 ... — 1888 ... ... 396 1883 ... ... 481 1889 ... •• 344 1884 ... ... 4 6 5 1890 ... ••• 337 1885 ... ••• 453 In 1891 the headquarters of C Troop were shifted from Waddesdon to High Wycombe, the strength of the regiment being 49 347 °f a ^ ranks. The E, or Newport Pagnel, Troop was broken up in 1892, and a troop raised in the County of Northamptonshire with headquarters at Northampton, recruits also being taken from Huntingdonshire and Bedfordshire, the strength still being on the decline, namely 335 effectives for the year. The Government made another attempt to re-organise the Yeomanry Force, and in January 1893 the regiments were ordered to be formed into brigades of two regiments each under the senior commanding officer of the two regiments. The regimental adjutants were done away with, only one adjutant being allowed per brigade. The Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry and the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry were ordered to form the 2nd Yeomanry Brigade. The establishment of the regiment was ordered to be reduced from 498 to 431 of all ranks, the number of regimental officers being much the same, however — viz., 1 Lieut. -Colonel, 1 Major, 8 Captains, 8 Lieutenants, 4 Second Lieutenants, 1 Surgeon, and 1 Vet. -Surgeon, twenty-four excluding the Brigade Adjutant, who was borne on the rolls of the Bucks Yeomanry. At the same time the eight troops then comprising the regiment were formed into four squadrons. The eight troop quarters were then as follows : A, Tingewick ; B, Stoney Stratford ; C, High Wycombe; D, Akeley ; E, Northampton; F, Aylesbury ; G and H, Buckingham ; but under the new scheme the four squadron headquarters were as follows : Nos. 1 and 2 Squadron Headquarters, Buckingham ; No. 3 Squadron, Northampton ; and No. 4 High Wycombe, the regimental headquarters still being at Buckingham. The strength in 1893 showed a considerable decrease in numbers, being 298, and in 1894 had dropped to 288, but this was the low water mark, and fortunately so, because any squadron which fell below seventy efficients was liable to be broken up, and the regiment was within eight enrolled members of losing one of 50 its squadrons, but in 1895 the strength began to rise, again being 302 of all ranks. During the 1895 training the Royal Bucks Hussars marched to Oxford, a distance of seventeen miles, and went through brigade movements with the Oxfordshire Hussar Yeomanry before H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, under the command of Lord Chesham, and then marched back to Buckingham, fifteen miles, the saddles not being removed from the horses from six in the morning till nine in the evening, and on the following day Lord Chesham inspected the horses, and out of 280 only three were found to be suffering, and those merely from sore backs. The strength in 1896, being still on the increase, was 315 enrolled. In September a detachment was raised at Potton and attached to G, or Capt. G. D. Smith's troop. Capt. J. F. H. Harter was promoted Major on June 17th, 1896. Previous in the 1897 training a Maxim gun was presented to the regiment by Lieut, the lion. L. W. Rothschild of the 4th Squadron, and was used for the first time at this training, it was placed under the charge of Lieut. Cecil Grenfell, and a detachment of the Aylesbury Troop were sent to the Maxim Works at Erith, Kent, to be trained in its use, the Buckinghamshire Hussars being the first corps in the Yeomanry Force to possess a regimental machine gun. The regiment marched in to Buckingham on May nth, the drills being held in Stovve Park, the officers' headquarters and mess being at Yeomanry House. On Friday, May 21st, Field Marshal Lord Wolsey, the Commander-in-Chief, accompanied by Major- General Sir Francis Grenfell, Inspector-General of Auxiliary Forces, and Major-General Luck, Inspector-General of Cavalry, inspected the regiment in Stowe Park, which formed an ideal place for the inspection manoeuvres. At the conclusion of the inspection the Commander-in-Chief addressed Lord Chesham, and said he was well pleased, not only with the smart and soldierlike appearance of the men, but with the excellent way in which they had carried out their work. The regiment was as good as any Yeomanry Cavalry he had ever seen, if not better, and he 5i congratulated him on commanding such a fine body of men. Lord Chesham and the officers of the regiment entertained the Commander-in-Chief and a large party of friends to luncheon in the Yeomanry House, Lord Wolseley returning to town by a special train in the evening. The following telegram was received from H.R.H. the Due D'Orleans during the training by the Colonel : " Please accept my best thanks for the very handsome present I have received from the officers of the Royal Bucks Hussars. I hope you will express to them my feeling of gratitude for it, and for the kind thought which prompted its transmission. I hope to thank them all at no very far off date personally, but, meanwhile, hope you will assure them of my strong recollection of the very happy time I spent with the regiment, which I shall always look back to with feelings of great pleasure and affection, and trust I may again have the opportunity of another stay with my comrades of the Royal Bucks Hussars." The strength in 1897 was 345 °f all ranks, largely due to the great increase of the 4th or South Bucks Squadron, due to the energy and zeal of Captain H. W. L. Lawson. Martini-Metford .303 carbine was now the arm of the corps. The summer of this year was marked by a great honour being conferred on the Royal Bucks Hussars. On Monday, June 21st, a strong squadron, some 150 strong, of the regiment, accompanied by the band, assembled at Beaconsfield, consisting of men specially picked, for escort duty in welcoming back H.M. Queen Victoria to her Castle at Windsor, after the Diamond Jubilee celebration in London. On Tuesday the day was spent in drills, at Hall Barn, Colonel Lord Chesham being in command, assisted by Lieut. -Colonel Harter, Major Loder, Captains Lawson, De Winton, and Loder, and Lieutenants C. and J. Grenfell ; the evening of the day was spent in a smoking concert. At twelve o'clock next day the regiment was marshalled in the High Street, from whence it started, headed by the band, for the Household Cavalry Barracks at Windsor to join the Royal Horse 52 Guards, with which regiment it was to act in forming the field officer's escort of her Majesty from Slough to Windsor. After the reception at Slough, the squadron led the Escort of the Queen to Windsor, and on arrival at the Castle Col. Lord Chesham was presented to her Majesty, and by her special command the whole of the troopers filed past her carriage as it stood in the Quadrangle. Thus once more the Royal Bucks Yeomanry were in the very castle which, some fifty years before, they had been told off to defend in times of national alarm. Her Majesty, who desired the men to come close to the carriage so that she might have every opportunity of inspecting them, expressed her royal approval of their smart and soldierly appearance. Returning to Beaconsfield on Wednesday evening, the escort was dismissed next morning and proceeded homewards ; and later for these services the thanks of Lord Rothschild, Lord- Lieutenant of Bucks, were received. On Friday, August 6th, a detachment of thirty men, drawn from the Aylesbury and High Wycombe Troops of the 4th Squadron, under Capt. Lawson and Lieut. J. Grenfell, assembled at Taplow Court, and proceeding to the railway station met the King of Siam, accompanied by the Crown Prince, Lord Harris, and other people of importance. The Royal Salute was sounded, and the Royal party escorted to Taplow Court. The King desired his thanks to be given to the Escort through his English secretary, Mr. Verney, who many years before had been an officer of the Royal Bucks Hussars. In January 1898, a new feature was started in connexion with the Royal Bucks Hussars, the officers of the regiment assembling at Yeomanry House, Buckingham, the headquarters of the regiment, for mess and two days' hunting, the Colonel and many officers attending. Captain L. Sandwith, 8th Hussars, was appointed Brigade 53 Adjutant on March ist this year, Colonel, Lord Chesham, other regimental staff officers being Lieut. -Colonel Ellis and Major Harter. Lord Chesham had made several alterations in the regimental uniform, changing the busby plumes and horsethroat plumes to white from red and white, and introducing a closely- braided jacket, at the same time adding scarlet collars to the uniform. The uniform now consisting of a hussar busby with red bag with white trimming and boss, white lines and boss and white plume and egret, a dark green jacket with red collar closely braided with white cord and three rows of buttons (the officer having five rows and silver lace gimp), dark green pantaloons with double silver stripes ; the undress caps being dark green round forage caps with white band and button, the N.C.O. and officers having silver lace, the band wearing scarlet forage caps ; dark green stable caps with scarlet tops and white cord edging, having a Maltese cross on the left side, were also worn. The cross and sword belt were white, the officers having silver cross belts with a green line in the middle and silver sword belts and slings, also with a green line, the sabretache being as before, bright green velvet edged with broad silver lace, silver monogram with gold crown above. The harness was brown leather, the men having plain black sheep skins, the officers having black lamb skins edged with scarlet and white throat plumes on their chargers. The band was now a very fine one, and the regimental march being the " Gallants of England." The regimental badge of a Maltese cross, dating from the old days when a shako was in use, was still worn, and the old motto, " Strike Home," still retained, although almost forgotten by 54 the majority of the members of the regiment. This year the head-quarters of No. 2 Squadron were re- moved from Buckingham to Towcester in 1895, ar, d the squadrons were lettered A, B, C, and D instead of numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 — the squadrons standing as follows : A Squadron — Buckingham, Winslow ; B Squadron — Towcester, Akeley, Bracklev, Daventry ; C Squadron — Northampton, Peterborough, Kettering, Newport Pagnall, Bedford, Wellingborough ; D Squadron — High Wycombe, Beaconsfield, Aylesbury, Ouainton, Taplow. The 1898 permanent duty commenced at Buckingham on May gth and concluded oil Friday, May 20th, when H.R.H. the Prince of Wales inspected the regiment. The Prince arrived at Buckingham on Thursday evening, the 19th. He was received at the railway station by Lord Chesham, Lord Addington (High Steward), Major-General Luck (Inspector-General of Cavalry), and the Mayor and Corporation and a guard of honour of the Bucks Rifle Volunteers, with their band, who extended to " Brookfield," where the Prince was to pass the night. He dined with the officers of the regiment in the evening at Yeomanry House, at the entrance of which seventy dismounted men of the Royal Bucks Hussars, nearly all 6 ft. high, were drawn up with drawn swords, a most impressive sight, the band playing the National Anthem. The regiment paraded next day in the Market Place, and proceeded to Stowe Park, where the Prince arrived accompanied by Major- General Kelly-Kenny. Despite the stormy and rainy weather the men did not cloak, and the review was proceeded with, the Prince, who was in the uniform of a Field-Marshal, first proceeding along the ranks of the regiment drawn up in line, after which they marched past in squadrons, filed past, and then trotted and galloped past in squadrons, finally ending in a charge right across the Park. The officers were then called out, and after his Royal Highness had complimented them on the appearance and efficiency of the regiment, he placed himself at the head of the Royal Bucks 54 and led them back to the town, where he lunched with the officers before departing to London. Captain A. B. Loder was promoted Major on July 12th, 1899, the strength this year of the four squadrons being 414 of all ranks. In December 1899 the call for Yeomanry for service in South Africa was made, and the late Lord Chesham became one of the principal promoters of this newforca. Two companies each of some 120 men were raised, numbered the 37th and 38th (Royal Bucks Hussar Companies of Imperial Yeomanry), and with the 39th (Berkshire Compa.ny) and the 40th (Queens Own Oxfordshire Hussars Company) formed the 10th Battalion, under Lord Chesham himself, in addition to which fresh contingents were afterwards raised to renew the 37th and 38th Companies and two new companies, the 56th and 57th Companies, were raised by the regiment, and eventually joined the 15th Battalion although the 56th and 57th Companies at first formed part of Lieut. -Colonel Sandwith's (the late Adjutant) 15th Battalion of Imperial Yeomanry. Amongst the officers of the regiment who served were Captains W. de Winton, C. A. Grenfell, Lieut. J. P. Grenfell, and Lieut. Percival. The 37th and 38th Companies were amongst the first to leave England, which they did on the Castle liner Norman, 10th February 1900. The Bucks Hussars, with the 2nd Battalion of Imperial Yeomanry, were concentrated at Kimberley by the latter end of March 1900, and on April 5th took part in a sharp battle of Boshof against a strong body of raiding Boers. Lord Chesham and his " hunting men " of Bucks made a thorough sporting job of it from the beginning and surrounded the enemy. Colonel Villebois Mareuil, the French ally of the Boers, was killed ; also Sergeant Patrick Campbell, the husband of the celebrated actress, and a member of the Bucks Imperial Yeomanry, was killed. 55 The 37th and 38th Companies did excellent work on July 31st the same year at Frederickstal, and also at the great fight at Hartebestsfontein, where they earned the special commendation of Lord Methuen. After trekking some thousands of miles and taking part in many actions against the Boers, the original members of the two companies (37th and 38th) were relieved by a fresh contingent sent out by the regiment, and returned home in the Tingtagel Castle, arriving on Sunday, June 16th, 1901, at Southampton, and were received by the Lord-Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire (Baron Rothschild), the Mayor and civic authorities, and the regiment at High Wycombe the next day, where they were entertained to luncheon, the Lord- Lieutenant presiding, H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge being also present. After many fights the remainder of the Bucks Hussars returned home in 1902 with the other companies of the roth Battalion, which was now commanded by Lieut. -Colonel Murray, D.S.O., who had joined the Bucks Yeomanry for the Front as a trooper in December 1899, and went through all the ranks from corporal to lieut. -colonel, was mentioned in dispatches, granted a D.S.O., and finally brought his battalion home in command — surely a record, from private to lieut. -colonel in two years. On Lord Chesham going to the war, the command of the regiment fell on Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel J. F. H. Harter. Lord Chesham was mentioned in Lord Roberts' dispatches April 1901, and was accorded a most enthusiastic reception on his return home to Chesham from the Front on July 13th, 1901. He was accompanied by Lady Chesham and escorted by eighty Bucks Yeomanrv under Major Lawson. The town was decorated, and he was presented with an illuminated address, and finally drawn round the town in his carriage. A few days afterwards he took his seat in the House of Lords amidst loud cheers, and later, was presented by the County of Buckingham with a sword of honour at Buckingham. 56 The strength of the Bucks Hussars was 353 of all ranks. In 1901 the Minister for War, Mr. St. John Broderick, decided to improve the Yeomanry Force, which had done such yeoman service during the war, and place it on a sound basis. The whole Force was styled Imperial Yeomanry, and the title of the regiment consequently became the " Royal Buckinghamshire Hussars Imperial Yeomanry ' instead of the " Royal Buckinghamshire Hussars Yeomanry Cavalry." The regiments were to be increased to 596 of all ranks, recruited in four squadrons, and the regimental adjutants restored. The establishment of officers was fixed at one lieut. -colonel, one major (second in command), four captains, and seventeen lieutenants, one of whom was to command the machine gun detachment, also one adjutant, one medical officer, one veterinary officer, and one quartermaster — a total of twenty-seven officers. The establishment of officers was afterwards changed somewhat by four majors being added, and the lieutenants reduced from seventeen to thirteen. The sword was discontinued and only allowed for parade purposes, and Lee-Metford rifles issued as the arm of the Force, the Yeomanry being now considered a kind of Mounted Rifle Light Horse, or a sort of go-between the Regular Cavalry and Mounted Infantry, and were ordered to be instructed principally in two things, scouting work and dismounted duties in the field. Khaki was also ordered to be worn for field service kit ; the strength in 1901 being returned as 420, of whom 18 were officers. Bedfordshire raising a regiment this year, the Bedford men of the Bucks Hussars were transferred to that regiment. On March 19th, 1902, Lord Chesham, who had been for the last eighteen months acting as Inspector- General of the Imperial Yeomanry serving in South Africa, retired from the regiment, and was appointed Hon. Colonel of the corps, the command being assumed by Lieut. -Colonel Harter, who was dated back to January 57 igoo, Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel A. B. Loder being appointed second in command. During the month of April, Lord Chesham was appointed Inspector-General of Imperial Yeomanry in Great Britain, with the rank of Major-General, to the general satisfaction of not only the regiment but the whole Force. The 1902 training was held at Pendley Park, nearTring, not far from Aylesbury, and on May 29th, Earl Roberts, the Commander- in-Chief, accompanied by General Turner, Inspector-General of Auxiliary Forces, and Major Sherston, North Somerset Imperial Yeomanry, his A.D C, inspected the regiment. He was received by the local authorities at Aylesbury Station, and a guard of honour of the Bucks Volunteers. A detachment of the Bucks Imperial Yeomanry, all of whom had served in South Africa under Lieutenant J. Grenfell, escorted Earl Roberts through the town, which was gaily decorated, to the camp. After a visit to the camp, his lordship witnessed the departure of men to take part in a sham fight with the Herts Yeomanry. The idea was that the Herts men were advancing from Berkhampstead on Aylesbury, and four squadrons of the Bucks, three advancing and one in reserve, were opposed to them. Most of the fighting was on the left flank, and eventually Bucks succeeded in driving back the Herts force, taking many prisoners near Pendley Manor. It was close by, in Pendley Park, that the march past took place, General Sir William Gatacre and the Duke of Beaufort being among those who witnessed the inspection. Both regiments vvent by in sections, the Bucks, 450 strong, being under Colonel Hatfield Harter, and the Herts, nearly 200, under Colonel the Earl of Essex. The regiment next formed mass, and the Commander-in- Chief addressed them. The service, he said, for which they were likely to be employed was not as Cavalry, but as Mounted Rifles. 58 From what he had seen in South Africa he did not think Cavalry would be of any great use ; but he was certain that as Mounted Rifles the Yeomanry would be admirable. He advised them to take the greatest care of their horses, and not give them unnecessary work. It was very essential that they should learn to mount and dismount quickly, and to enable them to do this he recommended them to go in for short cobby horses rather than large long-legged ones. They should also pay great attention to their musketry training, for it was necessary to become good shots. From what he had seen they had shown a great deal of intelligence, and he had heard from their colonels that botli regiments had taken much trouble to do their best during the training. He was certain that in future the Yeomanry forces would fulfil their purpose. He wished them every possible success. Lord Roberts then left by the London and North -Western Railway for Euston, and the men marched back to their respective camps at Aylesbury and Berkhampstead. Major- General Lord Chesham was present at the inspection, where as Inspector- General of Yeomanry Cavalry he had been staying since May 26th, and has personally directed a long day's skirmishing by the Bucks Hussars on the 27th, and on the 28th, had paid a visit to the camp of the Herts Imperial Yeomanry at Berkhampstead. The strength of the Bucks Imperial Yeomanry this year was 503 enrolled. Major the Hon. H. L. W. Lawson was gazetted to the command on October 18th, 1902, Major the Hon. E. S. Douglas- Pennant being appointed second in command. A regiment had been raised in Northamptonshire taking 120 Yeomen from Bucks this year, and so now the recruiting area of the Bucks Hussars was restricted to its own county of Bucking- hamshire. In November 1902 the head-quarters of the 1st squadron were removed from Buckingham to Chesham, the four squadrons 59 standing in 1903 as follows : No. 1, Chesham ; No. 2, Stoney Stratford ; No. 3, Aylesbury; No. 4, High Wycombe; the regimental head-quarters being at Buckingham, where, from all that can be gathered, the head-quarters of the regiment had been since its formation. On May 12th the regiment came up for training at Daw's Hill Park, High Wycombe, and on the 26th Colonel Lawson unveiled a memorial tablet to all the men of that town who had fallen in the South African War, amongst whom were several Bucks Hussars, which had been placed in Wycombe Parish Church. On May 28th Major-General R. S. S. Baden-Powell, C. B., Inspector-General of Cavalry, made his official inspection of the Royal Bucks Hussars. The proceedings were somewhat interfered with about mid-day by an unprecedented thunderstorm. Never- theless, the regiment were put through a series of evolutions in the neighbourhood of the camp, and returned to their quarters, where the officers and men were briefly addressed by the inspecting officer, who complimented the regiment on its appearance and work. The training terminated next day, and Lieut. -Colonel H. Lawson, the commanding officer, in addressing the regiment prior to dismissal alluded to the words of congratulation addressed to them by Major-General Baden-Powell at the inspection, and said that that officer told him privately that he should very much like to have that regiment under his command on active service. The strength in 903 was 583 of all ranks (including 21 officers), of whom 536 were present at the training. In the spring of 1904 the War Office most unwisely decided to reduce the establishment of the Yeomanry regiments from 596 of all ranks to 476, the number of officers was not reduced, only the rank and file were touched, the Royal Bucks Hussars being thus 60 considerably over the strength. The regiment came up for training on May 12th, the training being held at Stowe Park, Buckingham, the men being under canvas as usual. Colonel Calley, 1st Life Guards, who carried out the official inspection, highly com- plimented the regiment. Baroness Kinloss presented the prizes won at the tournament and sports, and Colonel the Hon. H. L. W. Lawson (in command) thanked her for her kindness in allowing the corps to again camp at Stowe. He also referred to the fact that her late father, the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, did much for the regiment. The Baroness Kinloss gave a garden party to the officers and residents of the districts. A new badge was approved in September by the Army Council for the regiment, in lieu of the old Maltese cross. In bringing these incomplete notes to a close, one can only endorse the words of the County Committee w T ho arranged the Queen's reception at Slough on her return to Windsor in 1897, after the Diamond Jubilee celebration in London, who, in re- turning thanks to the regiment, remarked, " They turned out remarkably well, they had a very martial bearing, and it gave them great pleasure to know that they had such a good regiment of Yeomanry in the county," Z e^s 61 The Right Hon. The Baron Rothschild, P.C., G.C.V.O. Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire Che RigM Ron. Che Baron Rothschild, PX-, 6XV-0- Cord Cteutenant of Buckingbamsbire, BORN on November 8tli, 1840, Nathan Mayer, the eldest son of the late Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, was educated at King's College School and Trinity College, Cambridge, succeeded his uncle, Sir Anthony, as 2nd Baronet of his line in 1876, and his father, as an Austrian Baron, on the death of that Prince of Finance three years later. In the meantime, for twenty years, from 1865 to 1885, he represented Aylesbury in Parliament, in the Liberal interests, a length of willing service that was only terminated by his being raised to the English Peerage on June 29th, 1885. Five years previously, his Lordship generously presented the New Literary Society Building to that town. On April 17th, 1867, Lord Rothschild married Emma Louisa, the daughter of Baron Mayer Carl de Rothschild, and has, with other issue, a son, the Hon. Lionel Walter, who stood for Aylesbury for eleven years from 1899 to I 9 IO > when his health unfortunately necessitated his retirement, his successor being his cousin, the present Member for Aylesbury, Mr. Lionel N. Rothschild. 63 London numbers both Lord Rothschild and his son among her Lieutenants. His Lordship was made a member of the Privy Council, and the Knights' Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order was conferred upon him in 1902. Since 1889, his Lordship has acted as Lord Lieutenant for Buckingham, where his father, the Baron Lionel, acquired much property in the early seventies, at the same time that he purchased the present country seat of Tring Park in Hertfordshire, and the head of the great Banking Firm of N. M. Rothschild and Sons never allows business to interfere with the many local calls made on his valuable time. Philanthropic work throughout the County receives his active support, in which he is ably seconded by Lady Rothschild, who has made a practical study of nursing and its training, and is one of the most generous contributors to institutions of this kind. Many are the stories told of the Rothschild family, and their steady rise to princely wealth. Thn motto of their house, "Concordia, integvitas, industrial explains the secret of their success, coupled, it should be added, with an indomitable perseverance. In 1800, Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, the third son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, and grandfather of his Lordship, came to England, where he died, in 1836, a Baron of the Austrian Empire, having achieved unique success in gigantic loan operations. His confidence in his wife, Hannah, the third daughter of Levi Barent Cohen, of London, was such, that he left all his property absolutely in her hands, to deal with as she pleased, not even stipulating what bequests were to be made to charities. Needless to say his trust was fully merited. Baron Lionel Nathan, the eldest son of Nathan Meyer de Rothschild, and the father of his Lordship, was born in New Court, St. Swithin's Lane, on November 22nd, 1808, and after receiving a Continental education, took over the management of the English Banking Business on the death of his father. 64 By his wife, and cousin, Charlotte, the daughter of Baron Charles de Rothschild, of Naples, he had three sons and two daughters, Lord Rothschild being the firstborn. Two years later, by Royal Licence, Lord Rothschild's father became a Baron of the Austrian Empire. No less than eighteen Government loans were negotiated by him, and in 1856, he was the means of raising sixteen million pounds for the English Government to defray the expenses of the Crimean War. His influence was felt on the other side of the Atlantic, where he was instrumental in founding the United States National Debt, whilst the Austrian Finances owed much to his active direction. On the conclusion of the Franco-German War in 1871, it was Baron Rothschild, in conjunction with other financiers, who undertook to guarantee the maintenance of foreign exchanges, a proceeding which was of great assistance to the French in the pay- ment of their indemnity. Five years later, a further colossal sum of ^"4,080,000 was advanced to the English Government, for the purchase of the Suez Canal Shares from the Khedive, a transaction that was commonly said to have resulted in a profit to the Rothschild Firm of no less than £"100,000. As the hero of that eleven years' struggle for the privilege of entering the House of Commons, Baron Lionel was successful in overthrowing a mere racial objection, that had stood all too long in the way of his advancement ; and when, at last, he was suffered to represent his City Electors, the Baron endowed a scholarship at the City of London School, as a graceful act of appreciation of their fidelity to his cause. This most generous of philanthropists, who, as often as not, gave anonymously, died on June 3rd, 1879, when he was succeeded by Sir Nathan Mayer, now Lord Rothschild, who emulated his father, in that he is the first Jew to enter the House of Lords. The Evelina Hospital for Children at Southwark was founded bv the late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, M.P., for Aylesbury from 1885 to 1898, the husband of Evelina, the youngest daughter of Baron Lionel, in memory of her death in 1866. Lord Rothschild's Hertfordshire seat is at Tring Park, and his Town residence 148, Piccadilly, where, an ardent collector, like others of his family, many treasures of the world of art have found a resting place, including valuable pictures, such as Sir Joshua Reynolds' " Garric.k between Tragedy and Comedy," and '" Mrs. Lloyd," also Gainsborough's ' k Mrs. Sheridan," and '' Squire Hilyard," and many others. The attainment of his seventieth birthday was recently made the occasion of a presentation to Lord Rothschild by the United Synagogue, in the presence of a large assembly of friends. Lord Rothschild is a member of the Turf. Marlborough, St. James', and Brooks' Clubs. \ ^ 'T um 66 The Right Hon. The Baron Addtngton, J P., M.A. Clx Ridbt Ron. CDe Baron flddington, 3.p., Ifl.fl. CHE present High Steward of Buckingham, Egerton Hubbard, the second Baron Addington, was born on December 29th, 1842, being the eldest son of John Gellibrand, the 1st Lord Addington, by his marriage with the Hon. Maria Margaret Napier eldest daughter of William John, the 9th Lord Napier on May 19th, Finance and politics have found devoted and distinguished followers in this family. After graduating at Oxford, Lord Addington sat for Buckingham, in the Conservative interests, for no less than six years, prior to his accession to the title, from 1874 to 1880, and for North Buckingham for three years, from 1886 to 1889. On his father's death in that same year, and his consequent succession to the title, other duties claimed the new Lord Addington's attention. As partner in the well-known firm of Russia Merchants, Messrs. John Hubbard and Co., and Provincial Grand Master of Bucks from 1895 to 1908, His Lordship has evinced that strict attention to detail that bespeaks success. Always keenly interested in things military, Lord Addington was 67 formerly a Colonel in the Bucks Royal Volunteers, and holds the V.D. decoration, whilst he is at present Honorary Colonel of the Buckinghamshire Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. In 1880 he married Mary Adelaide, the daughter of the late Sir Wyndham Spencer Portal, the 1st Baronet of that name, by whom he has three sons and two daughters, his heir, the Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, B. A., having been born in 1893. The latter, too, shares his father's interest in the Bucks Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry, in which he holds the rank of Lieutenant. The late Lord Addington, the eldest son of John Hubbard, of Stratford Grove, Essex, by his wife, Marianna, the daughter of John Morgan, of Bramfield Place, Herts., was born on March 21st, 1805, and raised to the Peerage in 1887, and will long be remembered for his services in connection with the Directorship of the Bank of England, and Chairmanship of the Public Works Loan Commission. Whilst in the House of Commons, where he sat for Bucks in 1859, and from 1874 to 1887 for the City of London, he became an authority on Finance, his attention being directed especially to matters connected with Income Tax. Of this indeed he made an exhaustive study, and several pamphlets from his pen deal with the subject in a masterly manner, including one published in 1852 entitled " How should the Income Tax be levied?' Two years later, despite the opposition of Mr. \V. E. Gladstone, at that time time Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Hubbard, as he then was, succeeded in carrying a motion for a select committee to inquire into its assessment. It may be added that many of his suggested improvements were largely adopted subsequently. Other matters which engaged his attention were the coinage, and things educa- tional, as well as ecclesiastical. In 1874, on August 6th, he was sworn a member of the Privy Council. And all this, the work of one, who from his birth had been considered delicate, so that his education was conducted privately, and for some part of his early life he lived in France, and attended a school at Bordeaux. He it US was, too, who found time and means to build and endow St. Alban's Church in Holborn, which was duly consecrated in 1863. The occasion of the late Lord Addington's last speech in the House of Lords was the third reading of the Customs and Inland Revenue Bill on May 28th, 1889, and three months later he died at his beautiful seat at Addington Manor, and was laid to rest in St. Mary's Churchyard there, the Church itself having been restored by him. Addington Manor, Lord Addington's Buckinghamshire seat, was built in 1857 by the first Lord Addington, after the style of a French Chateau, the architect being Mr. P. Hardwick. Bricks were the materials used, together with stone quoins and dressings. Three towers were included in the scheme, and although the actual use of mullions to the windows was avoided by reason of its manifest inconvenience, the same picturesque effect was obtained by a skilful introduction of deep arches. The walls of the large entrance hall are lined with leather, and a magnificent old oak staircase leads to the upper rooms. Above the library window, prominent amid much ornate carving of the graceful leaves of vines and olives, is the inscription, " Donum Dei " whilst one of the towers bears another : — " Except the Lord build the House, their labour is but lost that build it." Without, a well-timbered park of some three hundred acres forms a graceful and pleasing setting to the mansion, and the fine conservatories add not a little to the pleasure of its inmates. As Lord of the Manor, and sole landowner, a Magistrate and a County Alderman for Buckinghamshire, Lord Addington has much to do in connection with local affairs. According to the Domesday Record, Addington was part of the land awarded to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, half-brother of the Conqueror, and after that turbulent priest's banishment, passed to 69 the Romenels, who, indeed, held it under him. To quote the Record itself : — Robert de Romenel holds of the Bishop of Bajeux in Edintone vi hides. The Arable vi caracates, two are in demesne ; there are eight villeins with ii cottagers, holding 3 caracates, and a fourth may be made. There are 4 servants, and meadow vi caracates. It was worth, and now is worth 60s. In Edward the Confessor's time 100s. Earl Godwin's tenant held this manor and could sell it. In subsequent years, Addington appears to have passed to the FitzBarnards, from whom it was bought at the beginning of the fourteenth century by John Blacket, thence it was conveyed to Sir John Molins, and by female heirs, to the Hungerford and Hastings families. The Curzons became its owners, by purchase, in 1532, and sold it to the Busbys nearly a hundred years later. Thence it passed to the Pouletts. And in this connection, it may be mentioned that St. Mary's Church, at Addington, contains many monuments to the Busbys, as well as one to the Pouletts. Traces of an older manor house still remain, including the stables, which are dated 1642. Above them is an ornamental turret, which at one time was able to boast of a clock. Near the Church the ancient village stocks are still to be seen, grimly reminiscent of former days, when the custom of public punishment was by no means the least of the indignities heaped on malefactors. Lady Addington, as a member of the Portal family, is descended from the Spanish Portals, who were seated in Languedoc at the end of the eleventh century, and her direct ancestor, the Hugenot Henri Portal, settled in Hampshire, when a hostile France exiled him on account of his religion. Being thus forced to 70 do something for his living in a strange land, M. Portal erected a paper mill at Laverstoke on the River Test. Contrary to the general run of things, success attende 1 his efforts, bank note paper was his speciality, and he contrived so to please the Bank of England authorities with his article, that they accorded him the unique privilege of supplying them with the well known flimsey. Needless to say, this has continued in the family ever since. Lady Addington's father, the late Sir Wyndham Spencer Portal, the first Baronet of the name, was also Chairman of the London and South Western Railway, and among his greatest treasures was a framed portrait of Queen Victoria, presented by herself, together with a letter gracefully alluding to the number of times Sir Wyndham had shared Her Majesty's journeys on the Royal Train. The youngest brother of Lord Addington, the Hon. Evelyn Hubbard, is now one of the Directors of the Bank of England, and he too married into the Portal family, his wife, Eveline Maude, being the fourth daughter of the late Sir Wyndham Spencer Portal, and younger sister of Lady Addington. As a Conservative, the Hon. Mr. Hubbard contested North Bucks twice, in 1889 and 1891, and Plymouth four years later, whilst from 1895 to 1898 he was an Alderman of the London County Council, besides representing the Brixton Division of Lambeth in Parliament from 1896 to 1900. There is at Addington, a charity represented by the interest of ^"720 in the Consols, which is applicable to the relief of the poor, and for assisting the children of those in indigent circumstances, by giving them some measure of education, and apprenticing them to a calling. Lord Addington's town address is 7, Campden Hill Court, Kensington, W. His Lordship is a member of the Carlton Club. 7 1 72 The Late Sir John Aivd, Bt., J. P. Ok Cate Sir 3obn Aird, Bt., 3.p. B Y the recent, much to be regretted death of the late Sir John Aird, of Wilton Park, Buckinghamshire and the Metropolis have alike sustained a mutual loss. A staunch Conservative, as Member for North Paddington, Sir John held that seat from 1887 until 1906. Born on December 3rd, 1833, the son of the late John Aird of Great Cumberland Place, by Agnes, his wife, the daughter of Charles Bennett of Lambeth, Surrey, Sir John was of Scottish extraction, being the grandson of Robert Aird, of Fortrose, in Rosshire. He married, on September 6th 1855, Sarah, the daughter of the late Benjamin Smith, of Lewisham, Kent, by whom he has, with other issue, two sons. His heir, the present baronet, also Sir John, was born on November 6th 1861. As a prominent member of the firm of Messrs. John Aird and Co., contractors, Sir John's shrewd business abilities were of immense value to his house, and among the huge undertakings 73 with which his name will always be associated, is the successful damming of the Nile at Assouan. From 1899 to 1902 this stupendous work was in progress, the whole scheme having been evolved by Sir William Willcocks, K.C.M.G., when Director General of the Reservoirs of Egypt, the aim and object of the whole work being to safeguard Egyptian Agriculture from the disastrous effects of a low Nile. In 1901, Sir John was created a baronet, and decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Medjidie. An honorary Lieut. -Colonel of the Engineer and Railway Staff Corps, a Commission of Lieutenancy for the City of London, a Justice of the Peace for Middlesex, and a Mason, the millionaire baronet yet found time to discharge his multifarious duties, and attend to the pressure of business. The present baronet, the second Sir John Aird, by his marriage with Alicia Ellen, the daughter of James Hall Renton, of Park Lane, has two sons and two daughters ; his heir, John Renton, was born on August 7th, 1898. 74 Henry Eden Allhusen, Esq., B.A., D.L., J. P. fienrp €den flllbusen, €sq., B.fl., D.C., J.p. CHE eldest son of the late Henry Christian Allhusen, by his wife, Elizabeth Alice, daughter of the late Thomas Eden, of Norton Hall, Gloucestershire, Mr. Henry Eden Allhusen was born on August 20th, 1 867, and was educated at Cheltenham College, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1890, the same year that he succeeded his grandfather, Christian Allhusen, in the Stoke Court property. Six years later, on July 21st, 1896, he married Mary Dorothy Osma, younger daughter of the late Colonel the Hon. John Constantine Stanley, of the Grenadier Guards, second son of Edward John, 2nd Baron Stanley, of Alderley, and brother of the fourth and present Baron Stanley, who is also Lord Shefned. Colonel Stanley's wife, and the mother of Mrs. Allhusen was Mary Susan Elizabeth, the daughter of Keith William Stewart-Mackenzie, of Seaforth, afterwards the wife of the late Lord St. Helier (better known as Sir Francis Jeune), and one of the most brilliant hostesses of Queen Victoria's reign, an earnest worker in the cause of charity, and gifted moreover with an able pen, as contributions to the leading magazines and reviews on social, and other questions have frequently demonstrated. 75 A son and heir, Henry Christian Stanley, was born to Mr. and Mrs. Allhusen on November 21st, 1899, the other issue of the marriage being two daughters, Helena Madeleine Mary, and Dorothea Elizabeth. Mr. Allhusen is a Magistrate, and Deputy Lieutenant for Buckinghamshire. In politics a moderate Conservative, he sat for Salisbury from 1897 to 1900, and from 1900 to 1906 represented Central Hackney. Moreover, in 1905, Mr. Allhusen also filled the honorary office of Assistant Private Secretary to the Right Honourable St. John Brodrick (now Viscount Midleton, and married to Mrs. Allhusen's only sister) at that time Secretary of State for India. Mr. Allhusen's grandfather, Christian Allhusen, of Elswick Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Stoke Court, was the first to connect this family with Buckinghamshire in the year 1871. He was the son of a merchant in Kiel, Carl Christian Friedrich Allhusen, on whom Marshal Davoust quartered himself during the Napoleonic wars at the beginning of the last century. Born in 1806, he was a Magistrate for both Durham and Buckinghamshire, and also served as a Deputy Lieutenant for Newcastle-on-Tyne, and as President of its Chamber of Commerce. He was the owner of large chemical works on the banks of the Tyne and was a prominent personage in the commercial life of Newcastle for over fifty years. By his wife. Anne, the daughter of John Shield, of Broomhaugh, Northumberland, he had a large family. His eldest son, Henry Christian, the father of the present Mr. Allhusen, of Stoke Court, was a distinguished leader of the Volunteer move- ment in the north of England and in i860 he raised the 1st New- castle Artillery which corps he commanded till his death in 1871. Mr. Allhusen's family is also closely connected with Buckinghamshire by ties other than those of residence as his brother, Major Allhusen of the 9th Lancers married the elder 7 6 daughter of Mr. Swithinbank, of Denham Court, and his sister Margaret married the eldest son of Mr. Hanbury, of Blythewood. Stoke Court, gains additional interest in that it is an enlarge- ment of the original house in which the poet, Gray, lived with his mother and aunt from 1742 to 1753. The famous Elegy is known to have been begun about the beginning of this stay, and although much of the work was executed at Cambridge, Gray returned to the scene of his poem, Stoke Pogis, to finish it. The house was much enlarged about 1845, by Mr. Penn, its then owner, so that it no longer resembles externally the " Compact box of red brick, with sash windows,'" as Gray described the residence, then known as West End Cottage. But internally apart from decorative alterations, several of the rooms of the old house still remain, and on the rising ground about a quarter of a mile from the house there still stands the old Summer house from which Gray may have obtained his distant prospect of Eton College. Within Stoke Pogis Church is a tomb to Mary Antrobus, the poet's aunt, and " Dorothy Gray, the careful, tender mother of many children, ol whom one alone had the misfortune to survive her," and that one, the poet, was, by his express desire, afterwards buried within the same vault. Without, in the churchyard, is a monument to his memory, bearing quotations from his Elegy, and other poems, erected by Mr. John Penn. Mr. Allhusen is a member of the Carlton, White's, the Coaching Club, etc. ; a member of the Bucks County Council ; serves on the Committee of the Surgical Aid Society ; was formerly on Committees of Navy League and Imperial Maritime League ; and is Vice-Chairman of the South Bucks Conservative Association. 77 7 8 Rfiss Andrewes, of Maids' Morton Manor l»iss Andrews of maids' D)orton manor. mISS MARY HENRIETTA TURNER HUTTON ANDREWES is the only daughter of the late Rev. William Andrewes Uthwatt, Lord of the Manors of Maids' Morton and Great Linford, the latler manor passing at his death to his next surviving brother, the late Augustus Thomas Uthwatt, who died in 1885, the uncle of its present owner, Mr. William Francis Edolph Andrewes Uthwatt, who is first cousin to Miss Andrewes. Through her mother, Mary, the daughter and co-heir of the Rev. James Long Hutton Long, Rector of Maids' Morton, and who brought this property into the Andrewes family on her marriage, Miss Andrewes is descended by a female branch from King Edward III., through a daughter of that fine old Duke of Lancaster, John of Gaunt. Maids' Morton derives its name from the founders of its beautiful old Church of St. Edmund's, two maiden ladies of the Peovre family, who built the Church about 1450. Their arms are painted over the the northern doorway, together with an inscrip- tion recording their pious act. It may be added that at the 79 beginning of the reign of the first Edward, the Bedfordshire Peyvres, or Peovres, held much of the land here. The Church itself is one of the most noteworthy in the County, being a fine example of the perpendicular style, its treatment also is uniformly harmonious. In the time of Cromwell it fared badly, for the beautiful stained glass in its windows was mostly shattered by the rude soldiery. The extent of their depredations may best be judged from the following entry in the Parish Registers at the beginning of the Civil War : — Anno 1642. This year the cross, which had like with its fall to have beat out the brains of him that did it, was cut off the top of the steeple by the soldiers at the com- mand of Colonel Purefoy of Warwickshire. There is also another interesting entry under date of 1653, explaining that although " This year came into force an act of the usurper, Cromwell, that children ought not to be baptised, and about marriages by justices of the peace," the rector, Matthew Bate, had firmly continued to baptise and perform marriages according to the rites of the Church of England, and in defiance of the Parliamentary Edict. There still remain perforations in the old oak door, that are generally ascribed to the work of the intruding Roundheads. Among the most interesting monuments is one to Mrs. Penelope Verney, the wife of the Hon. Richard Willoughby de Broke, whose death in 17 18 is thus recorded : — Under this stone doth lye, As much virtue as could die ; Which, when alive did vigor give ; To as much beauty as could live. In 1882, the chancel was restored by the late Rector, the Rev. R. W. Johnstone, and the nave being treated in a similar No manner, Miss Andrewes generously contributed £"650 towards the total cost of this part of the work. Remains of mural paintings still exist on the chancel walls, one being generally considered to represent The Last Supper. It was Sir George Moore, of Maids' Morton, who was created a Baronet in 1665, who disposed of his estate in this parish to Dr. George Bate, who was born there at the beginning of the seven- teenth century, and subsequently enjoyed the honour of being successively appointed as chief physician to Charles I., Cromwell, and Charles II., preserving his appointment through all the vicissitudes of State, with an assiduity that recalls the skill of the Vicar of Bray, although the story runs that, to gain the third and last appointment, the doctor found it necessary to circulate a rumour that the Protector's days were shortened by means of a draught he gave him. Among the Maids' Morton charities is Elmer's, which pro- vides £"3 per annum, £2 to be given to a poor man, and £1 to a needy woman, while Scott's charity, being the interest on £"158. 2s. 6d., is distributed in the form of bread, which is given to the poor. Miss Andrewes is the patron of one living. ^XK Si 82 Waldorf Astor, Esq. Waldorf Astor, Esq. Cliveden. Waldorf ilstor, esq. n ATURE and Art have combined to make Cliveden, the Buckinghamshire seat of Mr. Waldorf Astor, an example of rare loveliness. Situated on high ground, and bordered below by the Thames, that threads its way through the woody slopes of this exquisite estate, like a silver riband linking up the various shades of green, the ideal landscape thus presented, lingers long in the memory. Those hanging woods, as they are called, of famous yews, that in many cases cling to the hill sides, with their gnarled roots exposed to the air, and whereon in due season, the wild clematis and other c limbing plants fling a profusion of blossom, shelter drives and walks of matchless beauty, that, in Springtime, insensibly recall the picture conjured up by a poet singer of our day:— Upon her nest of twigs the wood-dove broods; The cooing note rolls softly through young green, A woodpecker is tapping on unseen; The hum of insects fills the heated woods. 83 The cooing note rolls softly through young green; The sun-discs dance where golden light intrudes; The hum of insects fills the heated woods As on the beech tree's knotty roots we lean. Lying only two and a half miles from Taplow, Cliveden was purchased from the Mansfields, by the second Duke of Bucking- ham, the favourite of King Charles II, who expended huge sums in laying out the grounds to best advantage, and erecting a palatial residence. The beautiful terrace over four hundred feet in length, adjoining the south front of the present building, is supposed to be some of the Duke's work, also the walks through the grounds, and alcoves. But, having passed into the hands of the Earl of Orkney, who greatly improved both the estate and the fine house, Cliveden was destroyed by fire at the close of the eighteenth century. Later Sir G. Warrender bought the property and in 1830 completely restored the house. Again misfortune overtook it, a second fire occurred in 1849, and the Duke of Sutherland, its then owner, erected the present mansion after designs by Sir Charles Barry. Imposing simplicity is the keynote. The centre is taken from Inigo Jones' design of old Somerset House, and connected, by means of corridors, with wings on either side, the work being carried out in brick, cement and Portland stone. Within a fine park of three hundred acres, and standing on a wide lawn, on high ground, the house thus commands fine views all over the Thames valley and surrounding country ; the North Front, wherein is the principal entrance, being particularly fine. The hall is paved with Minton's encaustic tiles, and the fine suite of rooms on the ground floor, all have access to the terrace. Other notable features in the grounds are the Clock Tower one hundred feet high, with balconies on either side, at a distance of fifty three feet from the ground, and a magnificent view from the look-out building, within nineteen feet of the top of the structure ; an octagonal Temple in the Park, built after Leoni, in 1735, and H an Italian Pavilion, which was intended by the first Earl of Orkney to commemorate the Duke of Marlborough's victories in the Netherlands, wherein the Earl had borne his share, as one of the Duke's most brilliant generals. Yet another interesting feature among the many is a French garden of about five acres in extent, designed by the Dowager Duchess of Sutherland, and planted with rare flowers and exquisite flowering shrubs. For several summers, too, Cliveden was honoured as the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of King George III., and it was here, in a most romantic setting, that the poet Thompson, wrote the masque, " Alfred." Royalty, at Cliveden, witnessed its first performance, when the martial strains of " Rule Britannia" were heard for the first time: — amid surroundings indicative of the utmost peace and quietude. Mr. Waldorf Astor, the present owner of Cliveden, and one of the chief landowners in the neighbourhood of Taplow, is the eldest son of Mr. William Waldorf Astor, of Hever Castle, Kent, (who purchased Cliveden from the Duke of Westminster in 1893) by the late Mary Dahlgren, the daughter of the late James William Paul, of Philadelphia. Born in 1879, Mr. Astor received his education from Eton and New College, Oxford, where he graduated as Bachelor of Arts in 1904, and two years later, married Nancy Witcher, the daughter of Chiswell Dabney Langhorne, of Mirador, Greenwood, Virginia, (and widow of Robert Gould Shaw), by whom he has with other issue, a son and heir, William Waldorf, who was born in 1907. Like his father, Mr. Astor takes a keen interest in local matters, and is on the roll of High Sheriff for the adjoining County of Berkshire for 19 12, Mr. William Waldorf Astor, having filled a like office for Buckinghamshire in 1908. 35 It was in 1890, on the death of his father, John Jacob Astor, that Mr. William Waldorf Astor, his only child, by the late Charlotte Augusta Gibbes, succeeded to the vast family property, at the age of forty-two, after a strenuous career of usefulness that included three years devotion to politics in the Legislature of the State of New York, considerable experience as a barrister, and the invaluable insight afforded into matters connected with the estate by reason of his has having assisted his father for many years in the management of it. In addition to these manifold duties, Mr. Astor held the office of United States Minister to Italy from 1882 to 1885, and is the author of Valentino, Phavoalis Daughter, Sforza, and many other stories. It will be remembered that in 1893, his purchase of the " Pall Mall Gazette and Budget," con- stituted from a journalistic point of view, the event of the year, and his naturalisation as a British subject, followed six years later. It was Mr. William Waldorf Astor who built the Waldorf Hotel, in New York, which adjoins the Astoria, built by his cousin, Mr. John Jacob Astor, and the two now form one building under the well-known name of the Waldorf Astoria. Mr. Waldorf Astor, of Cliveden, is a member of the Bachelors' and Marlborough Clubs. 2Qg 86 Lieut. -Colonel Francis Tyvingham Higgins Bernard, M.A., J.P. £leur-Col. Francis Cpringbam Digcjins Bernard, nm., XP. BORN in 1864, Colonel Francis Tyringham Higgins Bernard is the son of the late eminent Q.C. Joseph Napier Higgins, of Winchendon Priory, by his wife, Sophia Elizabeth, the younger daughter and co-heir of Sir Thomas Tyringham Bernard, of Winchendon Priory, the sixth and last baronet of his line, who died on May 8th, 1883. Educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, the subject of the present sketch assumed the additional name of Bernard by deed poll in 1897, and the same year married Evelyn Georgiana, the eldest daughter of Philip James Digby Wykeham, of Tythrop House, and thus connected his own with one of the oldest families in Oxfordshire, where the Wykehams of Swalcliffe Park have been seated from a very early date. Colonel Bernard has the advantage of a wide experience in men and matters. He is a barrister, and was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn. As a soldier, he has rendered military service in connection with the 18th Middlesex Rifle Volunteers, in which he held the rank of Major, was Captain of the Royal Bucks Hussars 87 Imperial Yeomanry, and at the present time is Major and Hon. Lieut. -Col. of the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Bucking- hamshire Light Infantry. As a politician, he is one of the best known Liberal-Unionists of North Bucks, and put up a good fight for that constituency during the last election. He is a convincing speaker and an ardent believer in Tariff Reform. The old Bernard family, from which Colonel Bernard is descended, through his mother, Mrs. Napier Higgins, derives from Godfrey Bernard, who was living at Wansford in Yorkshire, in the time of Henry III. The baronetcy in the family dates from 1769, when it was bestowed upon Sir Francis Bernard of Nettleham, in Lincolnshire, Governor of Massachusetts Bay from 1760 to 1770, in recognition of his able services in furthering the views of the Home Government over seas. Sir Francis, too, was the first of his family to hold the Nether Winchendon Estate in Buckinghamshire, which he inherited from his cousin, Jane, the wife of William Beresford, in 1 77 1, and herself the cousin of its former owner, Francis Tyringham. Dying in 1779 at Aylesbury, Sir Francis Bernard was suc- ceeded by his eldest surviving son, Sir John Bernard, who was in the Navy, and served in the West Indies, where he died, unmarried, at Dominica, in 1809, and the title then passed to his brother, that eminent philanthropist, Sir Thomas Bernard, intimately associated with the fortunes of the Foundling Hospital, of which he became Treasurer, and afterwards Vice- President. In other directions the claims of the sick and needy were given generous support. The school for the Indigent Blind remembers his name with gratitude while Fever, and other similar Institutions, owe much to his untiring efforts. The fourth baronet, Sir Scrope Bernard-Morland, who succeeded Sir Thomas as brother, and heir, assumed the additional name of Tyringham by royal license in 1789, and in 181 1 took the name of Bernard-Morland. For eighteen years he represented Aylesbury in the House of Commons from 1789 to 1807, 88 a length of time that comprised three Parliaments, and subsequently sat for St. Mawes through six, from 1806 to 1830. His third, but eldest surviving son, Sir Francis Bernard-Morland, died unmarried at the age of eighty-five in 1876, when the title passed to the sixth and last baronet, Sir Thomas Tyringham Bernard, his brother, and grandfather of Colonel Bernard. As member for Aylesbury from 1857 to 1865, Sheriff of Buckinghamshire in the year 1816 to 1817, and sometime Lieut. - Col. of the Buckinghamshire Militia, Sir Thomas was ever mind- ful of the claims of his county. He was thrice married, by his first wife he had two sons, who both predeceased him, and two daughters, of whom the younger, Sophia Elizabeth, became the wife of Mr. Joseph Napier Higgins, and thus the mother of Colonel Bernard. Chearsley Hill, near Aylesbury, Colonel Bernard's Bucking- hamshire seat, is pleasantly situated on high ground, and enjoys many fine views of the neighbouring district, of which the subject of this article is one of the principal landowners. Colonel Bernard is a Justice of the Peace for Buckingham- shire, the patron of one living and a member of White's and Boodle's Clubs. ^ 89 go Colonel William Edivard Bleivitt, C.B., C.M.G. Colonel William eduwd Blewin, C.B., C.ID.6. CHE Manor House on Bierton Hill, only some one-and-a- half miles from the market place of the picturesque old town of Aylesbury, and at present the residence of Colonel Blewitt is an imposing Elizabethan building, composed of red brick and stone, dating from 1852, when the Lord of the Manor, Mr. Acton Tindal, who succeeded his father and grandfather as Clerk of the Peace for Buckinghamshire, purchased the property from the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and built the present mansion, the architect being Mr. David Brandon, of London. The pastoral beauty of Mid-Bucks is seen to great advan- tage from the house, which stands in a commanding position, and was formerly the home of the gifted Mrs Acton Tindal, the poetess, who has been described as having" the mind of an antiquary," the authoress of " Lines and Leaves," and " Rhymes and Legends," who died in 1879, eleven years before her husband, then Lord of the Manor. The son of the late William Blewitt, of The Dove House, Pinner, Colonel Blewitt was born September^th, 1854. Harrow numbers him proudly among her sons. Later, having chosen the 91 Army as a profession, he passed to the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and in 1874, the Royal Artillery afforded him his first practical experience of military life. Ten years later he married Harriett Agnes, the daughter of the late James Rigby, of Moss House, West Derby, and widow of R. A. FitzGerald, by whom he has two sons and one daughter. With the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa in 1899, Colonel Blewitt was among the first officers at the front, and took part in the stubbornly-contested action of Elandslaagte on October 21st of that year, under Major-General French, that resulted in a victory for our arms ; nine days later he was in the thick of the battle of Lombard's Kop, subsequently bearing his full share of the weary one hundred and nineteen days' defence of Ladysmith, that will live long in the minds of men, and the action that took place on January 6th, 1900. The value of his services may be estimated by the fact that he was twice mentioned in the despatches by Sir George White, and was the recipient of the Queen's Medal and two clasps, besides being admitted to the Companionship of St. Michael and St. George. Since 1907, Colonet Blewitt has filled the position of Director of the Royal Artillery at Headquarters, having the rank of temporary Brigadier-General, and in 1908, he received the further honour of the Companionship of the Bath. In Cambridge Street, Aylesbury, stands the modern red-brick structure of the Church of St. John the Evangelist, intended as a chapel of ease to the parish Church. At various times, the building has been enlarged, as opportunity offered, the nave and chancel being added in 1894, an< ^ carved oak choir stalls seven years later. In 1906, Mrs. Blewitt of the Manor House, generously defrayed the cost of a belfry, containing three tubular bells. Colonel Blewitt is a member of the Army and Navy Club. 92 John Irvine Bosivell, Esq., M.D., J. P. 3oDn Iroine Bosiyell, esq.. ITC.D., 3.p. CO Crawley Grange, now the residence of Dr. John Irvine Boswell, much historical interest is attached, in that it is believed to have been built by Cardinal Wolsey, and when the latter fell from his high estate, the Grange was confiscated by his fickle master, King Henry VIII., and subsequently passed to the Hatchetts, from whom it was purchased b) the Selby-Lowndes, who, in their turn, transferred it to the younger brother of the celebrated biographer of the famous Dr. Johnson, Thomas David Boswell. A charming feature in a pleasing landscape, whether the Cardinal actually built the Grange or not, and it seems most probable that he did so, the architecture of the beautifully mellowed red brick building with stone dressings, mullioned windows and projecting porch, undoubtedly belongs to the Tudor period. 93 Writing in 1848, Lady Chatterton, at that time on a visit to Mr. Boswell at Crawley Grange, speaks of the house as " A very picturesque old place," adding, " It is interesting from having been at one time the residence of Cardinal Wolsey." The centre gable contains the entrance porch surmounted by the Boswell arms, with a Latin inscription: — "The Lord bless thy going out and thy coming in." Within the hall, a carved table derives peculiar interest from the tradition that it formerly served as the Cardinal's sideboard, whilst the arms of that great man are over the chimney piece, exquisitely carved in wood, the last being of Italian workmanship. There is also strong ground for the belief, from the appearance of the Royal arms on one of the oak shutters, in the hall, that Queen Elizabeth herself once honoured the Grange with a visit. Born in 1858, Dr. John Irvine Boswell, now an M.D. of London, is the son of John Alexander Corrie Boswell, of the Indian Civil Service. In 1884 he married Ellen, the daughter of Edgar Home, of The Hill, Witley, in Surrey. His town residence is 17 Buckingham Gate, S.W., but Dr. Boswell finds much in sympathy with his taste for all outdoor recreations in the peaceful surroundings of his beautiful old world home in Northern Buckinghamshire. A Conservative or rather a Liberal Unionist in politics, and a Justice of the Peace for both Kent and Buckinghamshire, Dr. Boswell is numbered among the members of The Reform, Automobile, Bath and Hurlingham Clubs. 94 Lieut. -Colonel Wentworth Grenville Atkins -Bowyer, R.E,, (retired) J. P. Cieut.Colonel UlentiDortl) Grcnville Atkins- Boioper, R. €. Retired, 3. p. CHE heir presumptive to the dual baronetcy of the old Bowyer family, the creations dating from 1660 and 1794, is Lieut. Col. Wentworth Grenville Atkins-Bowyer, of Weston Manor, near Olney, in Northern Buckinghamshire. Born on" November 10th 1850, the subject of the present sketch is the eldest son of the late Rev. William Henry Wentworth Atkins-Bowyer, by his second wife, Charlotte, the daughter of the late Captain William Wells, R.N. Colonel Bowyer's great-grand- father Richard, the fifth son of Sir William Bowyer, the 3rd Bt., of the first creation, was the first to assume the prefix surname of Atkins, in accordance with the will of Sir Richard Atkins, Bt., of Clapham. By his marriage with Elizabeth Brady in 1773, he had two sons, the elder being William, of Braywick Grove and Clapham, the grandfather of Colonel Atkins-Bowyer, and sometime 95 Brigade Major to the forces stationed at Halifax in Nova Scotia. This gentleman's wife, Frances, the daughter of the Secretary of that province, the Hon. Behning Wentworth, bore him four sons and seven daughters, his second son being the Rev. William Henry Wentworth, Rector of Clapham, and father of Colonel Wentworth Grenville Atkins-Bowyer. After receiving his education at Radley, the latter joined the Royal Engineers, and war with Afghanistan having broken out in 1878, ably sustained his share in the two years' active service thereby involved. It was subsequent to his retirement from the Royal Engineers with the rank of Major in 1896 that upon the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, the Government gladly availed themselves of the services of so experienced and gallant an officer, and on the conclusion of the War in 1902, in grateful recognition, promoted him to be Lieut. -Colonel of the Reserve of Officers. On October 29th 1883, Colonel Atkins-Bowyer married Eva Mary, the daughter of Major General Charles Stuart Lane, also a hero of the Afghan War, and an Indian Mutiny veteran. A son and heir, George Edward Wentworth, was born to Colonel and Mrs. Atkins-Bowyer on January 16th 1886, who graduated at New College, Oxford as a Bachelor of Arts in 1909, and is now a Lieutenant in the Bucks Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Bucking- hamshire Light Infantry. Of twelfth century date, the Bowyers are descended from Alfred Bowyer, who was living at the time of Henry I. Among his descendants, Sir William Bowyer, knight, held the office of teller of the Exchequer, and bought Denham Court, during the reign of James I. His grandson, the 1st Bt., of the earlier creation, Sir William Bowyer, of Denham Court, represented Buckingham- shire for twenty years in Parliament, and was frequently the host of Dryden, who derived valuable assistance from the baronet's undoubted literary abilities in his Translation of Virgil. 96 On the fifth baronet of the first creation, Admiral Sir George Bowyer, the third son of Sir William Bowyer, the 3rd Bt., was bestowed the honour of a second baronetcy in 1794 in recognition of his share in Lord Howe's victory over the French Fleet off Brest on June 1st of that year, a victorv that involved a loss of no less than 8,000 Frenchmen and 1,200 Englishmen. The present occupant of the title is the gallant Admiral's great-grand- son, Sir George Henry Bowyer, 9th and 5th Bt. of the dual creations. Weston Manor, Weston Underwood, a little over a mile from Olnev, the seat of Lieut. -Colonel Atkins-Bowyer, was long inseparably connected with the fortunes of that great Roman Catholic familv, the Throckmortons ; the old house was demolished soon after the death of the 6th baronet of that line, Sir George Throckmorton, about 1827; and in December 1898 the estate was purchased by Colonel Atkins-Bowyer of Sir William Throgmorton for £"40,500. Four stone piers, together with some of the stabling are the only remains of the older house. The present stone mansion is well situated, the seventy five acres of parkland being studded with stately avenues of beech, chestnuts, limes and elms, the delight of Cowper in former days. Memories of the poet cluster around Weston Underwood, and his friendship with Sir John Courtenay Throckmorton and his wife, his delight in The Wilderness, and the lovely scenery of the Weston neighbourhood were among the happiest recollections of his life. The fidelity of the poet's descriptions of the natural beauty of the place is remarkable. Scene after scene in " The Task" conjures up true and exquisite pictures of Weston's wood- beauty. The approach to the chestnut avenue is thus melodiously depicted : — 97 Descending now but cautious, lest too fast A sudden steep, upon a rustic bridge We pass a gulf, in which the willows dip Their pendent boughs, stooping as if to drink. Hence, ankle deep in rnoss and flow'ry thyme, We mount again, and feel at every step Our foot half sunk in hillocks green and soft, Raised by the mole, the miner of the soil. The summit gained, behold the proud alcove That crowns it ! yet not all its pride secure The grand retreat from injuries impress'd By rural carvers, who, with knives deface The pannels, leaving an obscure, rude name In characters uncouth, and spelt amiss. And in the dim distance : — O'er those, but far beyond (a spacious map Of hill and valley interposed between) The Ouse dividing the well-watered land, Now glitters in the sun, and now retires, As bashful, yet impatient to be seen. On his sometime home at Weston Underwood, Cowper has bequeathed the immortality of his deathless Muse. The present lord of Weston Manor and chief landowner is Colonel Atkins-Bowyer. He is a Justice of the Peace for Bucking- hamshire, and in the discharge of the duties therein involved, as well as the innumerable calls upon his time that befall a model, and resident landowner, he finds ample occupation for his days amidst ideal surroundings. Lieut. -Colonel Bowyer is the patron of one living and a member of the Naval and Military Club. Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bt , M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S., F.R.C.P. Sir 3obn Francis ftarpin Broadbent, Bt., IW.H., fl).D., Ifl.R.C.S., FRCP. RALEFIELD, about half a mile from the pretty little Buckinghamshire township of Wendover is the property and country seat of Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, the well-known heart specialist, who, like his famous father, the late Sir William Henry Broadbent, finds in the peaceful beauty of Eastern Bucks, a welcome rest from the arduous labours of a busy life. Nestling among the Chiltern Hills, Wendover would verily seem to have been gradually left behind in the advancing march of years. More than three centuries ago, Leland wrote of it, as " A pretty through-fare towne, having two streets well builded with tymbre", and the same description still holds good. In past times, Wendover Manor derived interest as having once formed part of the dowry of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII., its other claim to fame being a dual parliamentary one, in that it sent members to Parliament as early as 1300, and prior to its disenfranchisement in 1832, was represented by some of the most brilliant politicians of the time, including John Hampden, Sir Richard Steele, Edmund Burke and Canning. 99 Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, the second baronet of his line, was born on October 16th 1865, the eldest son of the late Sir William Henry Broadbent, by his wife Eliza, the daughter of the late John Harpin, of Birks House, Holmfirth, Yorkshire. Having received his education from Rugby and Hertford College, Oxford, where he took his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1888, and became a Master of Arts four years later, Sir John decided to follow in the foot- steps of his father, and entered St. Mary's Hospital. His aptitude for the work was speedily demonstrated. In 1891 he became a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, whilst the following year he took his M.B.,and two years later graduated as a Doctor of Medicine and a Member of the Royal College of Physicians. He became a Fellow of the latter body in 1904. After some time spent in additional study in Paris, Sir John Broadbent, to give him his present title, married on February 12th 1895 Margaret Elizabeth, the daughter of George Purdey Field, M.R.C.S., the issue of the marriage being a son and heir, William Francis, who was born on November 29th 1904, and four daughters. The distinguished father of Sir John, the late Sir William Henry Broadbent, held many varied appointments, including those of physician in ordinary to the late King Edward VII. when Prince of Wales, physician extraordinary to the late Queen Victoria, and he it was who attended the present King in 1891, when Duke of York, during a severe bout of typhoid fever, and the following year was in constant attendance on the late Duke of Clarence in his fatal illness. Created a baronet in 1893, Sir William Broadbent, amid all the claims on his time, yet contrived to produce two works of much importance in the medical world. The Pulse appeared in 1890, and The Heart seven years later. His death on July 10th, 1907 was a matter of widespread regret. 100 Like his father, Sir John has also published a technical work, on the same subject, entitled Heart Disease and holds many ap- pointments. His connection with St. Mary's, the Hampstead General and the London Fever Hospitals is well known. Of Yorkshire extraction, John Broadbent, of Longwood, Huddersfield, was the grandfather of the present baronet, his eldest son, by his wife, Esther, the daughter of Benjamin Butterworth, of Hillhouse, Holmnrth, being the late Sir William, ist Bt. Mr. John Broadbent's third son, Colonel John Edward Broadbent, C.B., formerly of the Royal Engineers, and uncle of Sir John Broadbent, made a name for himself in India, in connection with the Military Works Department, having held the offices successively of Deputy Director General for Fortifications, Chief Engineer of the Bombay Military Works, and Chief Engineer of the Punjab Command, whilst, later, he was in command of the Tirah Expedition, and of the Malakand Field Force for his division. For his services with reference to the two last, he was decorated with the Companionship of the Bath, and in connection with the Tirah Expedition was mentioned in the Despatches. Sir John Broadbent's town residence is 35 Seymour Street, W., and he is a member of the New Oxford and Cambridge and the Leander Clubs. 102 John Mitchell Bruce, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S., MA. 3oDn Mitchell Bruce, esq., m.D., C.C.D., f.RX.p., M.S., m.ji. OF Scottish extraction, Dr. John Mitchell Bruce was born in 1846, being the son of Mr. A Bruce, of Aberdeenshire. The Grammar School and subsequently Aberdeen Uni- versity afforded him his education ; and later, resolved to enter the medical profession, he pursued his studies at the Middlesex Hospital, and subsequently at the University of Vienna. Having gained further Continental experience, he devoted his energies to the study of pathology under Sanderson and Klein, after which, he joined the Charing Cross Hospital, where he became Dean of the School, having previously taught physiology and pathology as well as medicine and the materia medica. For over twenty years, the Brompton Hospital has numbered Dr. Bruce among its physicians, and at the present time he ranks as Consulting Physician to Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital, as well as that of Charing Cross, and the King Edward VII Sanitorium at Midhurst, whilst the Medical Section of the Royal Society of Medicine claim his services as President, the Royal College of Physicians, the Victoria University as well as those of 103 London and Cambridge have availed themselves from time to time of his erudition as an Examiner, and the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of his abilities as Honorary Secretary. In the medical world of literature, Dr. Bruce's Materia Medica and Therapeutics (51st thousand) and Principles of Treatment, are standard works. He has held the positions of Assistant Editor of Quain's Dictionary, Joint-Editor of The Practitioner, and has been connected with The Medical Times and Gazette, besides being the author of numerous articles on technical subjects. Pond's Farm, near Beaconsfield, his picturesque Bucking- hamshire residence, affords Dr. Bruce opportunities to pursue his taste for horticulture, during such time as he can be spared from 23, 1 Iarley Street, the only serious rivals to the garden being a love of travel and a leaning towards art. Dr. Bruce is a Fellow of the Zoological Society and a Member of the Caledonian and Athenaeum Clubs. 04 The Right Hon. The Earl of Buckinghamshire, D.L., J.P Che Right Don, Che earl or Buckinghamshire DX, 3-P- SIR SYDNEY CARR HOBART-HAMPDEN-MERCER- HENDERSON, Bt., Baron Hobart, of Blickling in Norfolk, and 7th Earl of Buckinghamshire, is the only surviving son of the late Frederick John, Lord Hobart, by his wife, Catherine Annesley, the youngest daughter of the late Rt. Rev. Thomas Carr, Bishop of Bombay. Born on March 14th i860, his lordship was educated at Haileybury and Trinity College, Cambridge, and succeeded to the title October 29th 1885, on the death of his grandfather, Augustus Edward, the 6th Earl and Prebendary of Wolverhampton, who had assumed the additional surname of Hampden by royal license in August 1788. ^5 On June 13th 1888 the present Earl married Georgina Wilhelmina, the only child of the late Hon. Hew Adam Dalrymple Hamilton Haldane-Duncan-Mercer- Henderson, of Fordell, Inver- keithing, the third son of Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Duncan and 1st Earl of Camperdown, by his wife, Edith Isabella, the sister and heir of George William Mercer Henderson, of Fordell, and on January 12th 1903, the Earl assumed by royal license the additional names of Mercer- Henderson for himself and his heirs, whilst the Countess of Buckinghamshire at the same time assumed the names of Mercer- Henderson in the place of Hobart- Hampden. Of this marriage, a son and heir, John Hampden, Lord Hobart, was born on April 16th 1906, subsequent to the birth of two daughters, of whom, the elder, the Lady Dorothy Edith Isabel Mercer- Henderson, who was born on April nth 1891 has recently become the wife of Mr. Claud Hope Morley, and the younger, the Lady Sidney Mary Catherine Anne, was born on April 17th 1900. The family of the Hobarts is of very ancient lineage, and is known to have been seated at Mitcham in Norfolk in the time of Henry III. Prior to the reign of James I. they had achieved fame, and were the holders of many important offices. The baronetcy dates from 161 1, when it was conferred upon Sir Henry Hobart, knight, of Blickling Hall, Norfolk, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, sometime M.P. for Yarmouth, and great- grandson of Sir James Hobart of Hales Hall, who was attorney general to Henry VII., and a member of that monarch's Privy Council. The third baronet, Sir John Hobart, M.P., nephew of Sir John Hobart, the second baronet, married, as his second wife, Mary, the youngest daughter and co-heiress of the great John Hampden, of Hampden, in Buckinghamshire (and widow of Colonel Robert Hammond,) whose ancestors had been in possession of their estates for centuries. The eldest son of this marriage, Sir Henry Hobart, succeeded his father as 4th baronet, in 1683, and was in attendanc 106 on William III. as equerry at the Battle of Boyne in 1690. Eight years later, as the result of a duel with Oliver Le Neve, Sir Henry died, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, at that time but live years of age. Educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, this member of the family subsequently sat for St. Ives and Beeralston in Parliament, besides holding the office of Treasurer of the Chamber of His Majesty, George II. On May 28th 1728, Sir John Hobart was raised to the Peerage as Baron Hobart of Blickling, and later, in 174b. was created 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire. His lordship was a member of the Privy Council, a Vice Admiral and Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk, and Captain of the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. By his wife Judith, the daughter and co-heir of Robert Britiffe, of Baconsthorpe, he had, with other issue, a son, John, the 2nd Earl, who succeeded his father in 1756, having previously sat for Norwich for nine years in the House of Commons, and later held the offices of Comptroller of the King's Household and Lord of the King's Bedchamber, in addition to being sworn of the Privy Council. In 1762, he was appointed Envoy Extra- ordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Emperor of Russia, and subsequently, in 1777 became Viceroy of Ireland. The 3rd. Earl George, half brother of the 2nd Earl, and was father of Robert, the 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, by his wife, Albinia, the daughter and co-heir of Lord Vere Bertie, and granddaughter of Robert, the 1st Duke of Ancaster. As Colonial Secretary, Robert, the 4th Earl, gave his name to Hobartown in Tasmania. During his father's lifetime, he was called to the House of Lords by writ as Baron Hobart, and held office as chief Secretary of State for Ireland and Governor of Madras. He was also Secretary of War, and after his accession to the title was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1805 and 1812, and from 1806-7 discharged the duties of Postmaster General. Dying without male issue, in 1816, he was succeeded by his nephew, George Robert, as 5th Earl, who 107 inherited the estate of John, Lord (Viscount) Hampden, and by royal license assumed the name and arms of Hampden quarterly with those of Hobart. On his death on February ist 1849, also without issue, the title devolved upon his brother, The Rev. Augustus Edward Hobart, the third son of George Vere Hobart, the second son of the third Earl of Buckinghamshire, and grand- father of the present Earl. Born in 1793, the Rev. Augustus Edward Hobart was educated at Brazenose College, Oxford, where he graduated as B. A. in 1815, and three years later took his MA. degree, having previously married Mary, the eldest daughter of John Williams, King's Sergeant, by whom he had, with other issue, Frederick John, Lord Hobart, the father of the present Earl of Buckingham- shire, who died during the lifetime of the 6th Earl on July 24th 1875. Hampden House, the County Seat of the Earl of Bucking- hamshire, and formerly of the Hampdens, is an imposing, white, embattled mansion, standing on the site of a more ancient building, and charmingly situated within extensive grounds, graced by fine elms, beeches and chestnuts, as well as stately cedars. The principal front, which is over two hundred feet in length, was erected in 1754, when, on the death of John Hampden, the last male descendant of that ancient house, who is described on his epitaph as the 24th lord of the manor in lineal descent, the estates passed to his cousin, the Hon. Robert Trevor, subsequently Baron Trevor and Viscount Hampden, the descendant of Ruth, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of John Hampden the Patriot ; and in 1824, following the death of the 3rd Viscount Hampden, they reverted to George Robert Hobart, the 5th Earl of Buckinhamshire whose ancestress was Mary, the youngest daughter of the above mentioned John. Although it is claimed that the present mansion is mainly 108 of 18th century date, history and tradition combine to keep the memory of the former lords of Hampden green. It is recorded that they were in possession of the property as far back as 1043, when, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, the lord of Hampden was required to assist in the expulsion of those ruthless invaders, the Danes. King Edward III and his son, the Black Prince are said to have visited Hampden ; Queen Elizabeth was entertained there by Griffith Hampden ; and the historian, Lipscombe, alludes to a visit of James I during the infancy of the Patriot, whose part in the Civil War of Charles I's reign is well-known. Within the Church, which stands close to the house, are many memorials of this ancient family, the oldest being the brass effigies of "John Hampden esquyer (d. 1496) and Elizabeth, hys wyffe." The present Earl of Buckinghamshire acted as lord-in- waiting to her Majesty, the late Queen Victoria, in 1895. His lordship also takes a keen interest in municipal matters, and is a Deputy Lieutenant and Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire while for nearly twenty years the County Council numbered him among its members. The Earl of Buckinghamshire is the patron of two livings and owns some 6,000 acres. In addition to his Buckinghamshire seat, Fordell House, Inverkeithing, in Fifeshire is the property of his lordship. The Earl of Buckinghamshire is a member of Brooks's and the National Liberal Clubs. 109 no Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Buvney, J.P, Wavendon Tower, Bletchley. CieutXolonel ftenrp Cdward Bunicp, J.p. "7W DESCENDANT in the eighth degree from James Macburney W% who flourished in the sixteenth century, the present represen- tative of the elder branch of the well-known Burney family, Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Burney was born in Birdcage Walk on April gth, 1845, the only son of the late Rev. Henry Burney, M.A., for forty seven years Rector of Wavendon, and his wife, Sophia, the youngest daughter of Peter Richard Hoare, of Clayton Hall in Lancashire and Kelsey Park, Kent, and brother of the late Sir Henry Hugh Hoare, the third baronet of his line. Radley afforded Colonel Burney his education, and in 1871 he married the Countess Ortensia Troili Asclepi, the elder daughter of Count Troili, of Rome, one son being the issue of the marriage. A Conservative in politics, Colonel Burney has rendered valuable service to his County as a Justice of the Peace, a Member of the County Licensing Committee and as Commissioner of Taxes, in addition to the military duties involved by his connection with the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry, in which he holds the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. Of Scottish origin, it is supposed that the Macburneys accompanied James VI. of Scotland to England when he succeeded Queen Elizabeth in 1603. The first three generations were all named James Macburney, the third of that name was born in 1653, 111 and acquired an estate at Great Hanwood in Shropshire as well as a house in Whitehall. This member of the family also acted as landstevvard to the Earl of Ashburnham ; and, having married the daughter of his Shropshire Rector, by her had issue a son, James Burney, the first to drop the prefix Mac, and change the spelling of the family name. The latter was born at Hanwood in 1678, and received his education at Westminster in the days of the great Dr. Busby. At the age of nineteen he married a sixteen year old actress, Rebecca Ellis, and after her death, contracted a second alliance with that celebrated beauty, Ann Cooper, who is said to have had the honour of refusing Wycherley's offer of his heart and hand. Gifted with unusual abilities, James Burney nevertheless lacked the steady perseverance essential to success. He was many things by turns, but nothing long, and after his second marriage, took to portrait painting. Altogether he had fifteen children, Richard Burney, of Barbonne Lodge, Worcester, who was born in 1723 being his elder son by his second wife, and the great-great grandfather of Colonel Burney, while the celebrated author of the History of Music, Dr. Charles Burney, who was born in 1726, and became the father of Frances Burney, afterwards Madame la Comtesse d'Arblay, was the younger son of James and Ann Burney, to whom was also born a daughter, Ann. It was during the time that young Charles Burney was the pupil of Arne that he attracted the attention of Fulke Greville, on whom the lad's musical talent and charm of manner made so great an impression that he gave Arne ^"300 to cancel the articles and took the young musician into his own home. In 1749, after Greville's marriage, Charles Burney fell in love with, and married Esther Sleepe, a lady of French extraction her grandfather being one Dubois, a refugee. The Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay as well as her edition of the Memoirs of Dr. Burney unfold intensely interesting life stories of the family, including the history of the friendships 112 with all the literary and artistic celebrities of the day, such as Johnson, Burke, Garrick, Mrs. Montagu, the Thrales and the Reynolds. Such was the charm of Dr. Burney's personality that he was admitted to the membership of almost every literary coterie of the time. Five years after the death of his first wife in 1761, Dr. Burney married Mrs. Stephen Allen, a widow, of King's Lynn, by whom he had a son Richard Thomas, afterwards connected with the Indian Civil Service, and a daughter, Sarah Harriet, a novelist of considerable ability. Dr. Burney, the talented author of " The Ode to St. Cecilia's Day" and the "History of Music," died on April 12th 1814, having outlived most of his contemporaries, and was laid to rest in the burial ground of Chelsea Hospital, a tablet to his memory being erected in Westminster Abbey. Of his children, the eldest, Esther, married her cousin, Charles Rousseau Burney, the son of Richard Burney of Barbonne Lodge before mentioned. James, who was born on June 13th 1750, was educated at King's Lynn in Norfolk, at the school where Eugene Aram acted as usher, and the memory of that unhappy madman and his appalling discourses with the boys on the subject of murder were among the most vivid impressions of his youth. Later, having embraced the sea as a profession, James Burney sailed under Captain Cook on more than one voyage, and was with him at his death, as first Lieutenant on the Discovery. After some years of active service in the East Indies this member of the family superannuated as a Rear Admiral in 182 1. Admiral Jem, as his family generally called him, had little, of the polish of his father, but his frank generosity and uniform breeziness of manner gained many friends. The latter part of his life was spent in literary labours. He assisted in the compilation of a Record of Captain Cook's last voyage, and wrote ' A Plan of Defence against Invasion 1797' in the days when Buonaparte's designs against England H3 were taking practical shape in the dockyards on the other side of the channel ; " A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Seas, or Pacific, 1750 to 1764," and a " Chronological History of the North Eastern Voyages of the Discovery." His only son, Martin, by his wife, Sarah, the daughter of Thomas Payne, became a barrister, and, in early days was a great favourite with Charles Lambe. Admiral Jem's daughter, Sarah, married her cousin, John Payne, and is supposed to have greatly resembled her celebrated Aunt, Madame d'Arblay, in person. Mrs. Payne lived principally on the Continent, for the most part in Rome, and was the centre of a very interesting circle, including many distinguished members of Roman Society. The third child of Dr. Charles and Esther Burney was Frances, who was born at King's Lynn on June 13th, 1752, her father at that time being the organist of that town. Entirely self- educated, Fanny Burney had reached the age of eight before she made the acquaintance of her letters, although two years later found her engaged in the writing of stories, of course including tragedies, all of which youthful productions she destroyed on her fifteenth birthday. In 1778, in her twenty-sixth year, came the brilliant success of her first novel, " Evelina," that took the world by storm. It is surprising to note the book that cost Sir Joshua Reynolds and Burke a night's sleep only brought the young authoress £"20, to which a further £10 was added, at a later date, and ten choicely bound copies. Four years later," Cecilia," her second novel, made its appearance, and in 1786 Fanny Burney was appointed second Keeper of the Robes in the Royal Household, under Madame Schwellenberg. Ill health, however, compelled her to relinquish a post never really congenial, in 1790, and three years later she married Lieut. -General le Comte d'Arblay, formerly Commandant of Longwy, and a knight of the Orders of St. Louis, the Legion of Honour and the Lys. 114 Her diaries make most fascinating reading, and present pen pictures of the celebrities with whom she came in contact, as well as affording interesting side lights on family affairs. Her death occurred on January 6th, 1840 at the age of 87. The following extract from her early diary is dated September 12th, 1768, and comprises her first mention of her cousin Charles Rosseau Burney, great-grandfather of Colonel Burney : — Miss Tilson, a young lady of fashion, fortune and education, birth, accomplishments and beauty, has fallen in love with my cousin, Charles Burney. She is about seventeen, and she wrote her declaration to him on her glove, which she dropt for him to pick up. She is the daughter lo some Lady Kerry, and has a portion in her own hands of several thousands, but this worthy Charles not liking her, is above temptation. In his youth, Charles Rousseau Burney studied music under his father, and was engaged at the Drury Lane Theatre. The second son of Dr. Charles Burney was that eminent Greek scholar, Dr. Charles Burney, D.D., who was born at King's Lynn about 1757, and became Chaplain to the King. On his death in 1817, his vast and extremely valuable library was placed in the care of the British Museum un ler the title of the " Burney Library," after having been purchased for the nation, for the sum of ^"13,500. Among others of its treasures was a Town ley Homer, valued at £"1,000, which is ascribed to the thirteenth century. To Charles Rousseau Burney and his cousin and wife, Esther a son, Richard Allen Burney, was born in 1773, who became Rector of Rimpton in Somerset, and by his marriage with Elizabeth Layton Williams, of Herringston Manor, in Dorsetshire, had a son, Henry Burney, the father of Colonel Burney, and Rector of Wavendon, who was born in 1814. To the generosity of the late Rev. H. Burney, the restoration of St. Mary's Church, Wavendon, must be attributed. After his death, a memorial window was erected in the church by his four children, " To the Glory of God, Ir 5 and in loving memory of their Father, the Rev. Henry Burney," who, " after a life of long devotion to his duties here, during which time he restored the church and built the rectory house almost entirely at his own expense, entered into rest on the 16th day of July 1893, after a few days' illness, aged 79. He leaves a son, and three daughters to mourn the irreparable loss of one who was not only a most kind and affectionate father, but whose hand was ever open to relieve the necessities of the poor and needy." Among the most interesting features of Wavendon Tower, Colonel Burney 's beautiful home in Buckinghamshire, is a fine gallery of family portraits, including specimens of the work of Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Gainsborough. The following are the family portraits in the Dining-room — * James Macburney, 1578 ; James Macburney, 1601 ; James Macburney, 1653, died 1723 ; James Burney, 1678, died 1749 ; Richard Burney, 1723, died 1792 ; Charles Rousseau Burney, 1747, died 1819 ; Richard Allen Burney, 1773, died 1836 ; Henry Burney, 1814, died 1893 5 Henry Edward Burney, 1845 ; Ann Burney ; Charles Burney (Music) D ; Comtesse Fanny Burney; Sophia Burney; Thomas F. Burney; Richard Gustavus Burney and Esther Burney ; also some Hoare portraits wmich Colonel Burney inherited from his mother (Sophia Hoare d. of P. R. Hoare. and granddaughter of Sir R. Hoare (Lord Mayor) whose picture he has on horseback in his robes near Temple Bar. The house itself is a large brick mansion, covered with rough cast, and possessed of a central tower, standing within well laid out grounds, and commanding fine views of the surrounding country, the approach being through an avenue of lime and chestnut trees. Colonel Burney is one of the chief landowners in the Wavendon district of Buckinghamshire, and is a member of the Junior Carlton Club. * The9e are all In line from father to son down to Colonel Burney. Observe the difference in spelling and the discontinuance of the Scottish Mac, probably taken from an old family Bible, date 1547 in Colonel Burney 's possession. 116 The Right Hon. The Baron Burnham, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. CDe Right Ron. Che Baron Burnham, K.C.V.O., D.£ 4t 3P. CO no one do the historical and literary memories that centre round Hall Barn and Beaconsfield make more eloquent appeal than to their present owner, Sir Edward Levy- Lawson, Bt., the ist Lord Burnham, principal proprietor of The Daily Telegraph, and ex- President of the Institute of Journalists, who fully appreciates the feeling of pastoral peace in these beauti- ful surroundings, that led the great Edmund Burke to pronounce the years spent at his Beaconsfield seat of The Gregories among the happiest of his life. Only a rough spinney marks the shrubbery of that house now, Gregories itself having been burnt down in 1813. The site of the foundations is indicated by mere irregular grass clad mounds, but the memory of that great orator, and statesman, its former occupant, remains. Impressive in its simplicity is the small oval tablet on the south wall of the little flint church of St. Mary and All Saints: — Near this place Lie interred 119 All that was mortal of the Rt. Honourable Edmund Burke, Who died gth July 1797. That was all, until over a hundred years later, when Lord Rosebery unveiled another memorial to him. But Buckingham- shire best remembers its sometime Member for Wendover as a kindly, country squire, of simple and unassuming manners, accessible and considerate to all. Lord Burnham treasures as mementoes of Burke's political life an autograph letter to William Pitt, a few notes in Burke's handwriting, with reference to the memorable Impeachment of Warren Hastings, including one: — " Hastings worth nothing; he has left nobody else worth anything ". The dagger too, once flung on the floor of the House of Commons in momentary excitement, is now at Hall Barn, along with a portion of Burke's dinner service, and a teatray that formerly belonged to the great statesman. Originally built by the poet Waller, the author of " Go, lovely Rose," in whose family the Beaconsfield property remained for many years, the house was considerably altered and enlarged by a subsequent owner, Sir Gore Ouseley, sometime Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Persia, who was also largely instrumental in enabling the Russians to drive Buonaparte out of their country. Standing within a beautifully wooded park, the present mansion, a large quadrangular building, composed of brick with stone dressings contains some magnificent apartments, the height of which from floor to ceiling, is fully twenty three feet, the well stocked library being especially noteworthy. Another feature of the carefully tended grounds and gardens, from which they derive an additional charm, is a large sheet of ornamental water, some two acres in extent, abounding in fish. 1 20 The eldest son of the late Joseph Moses Levy, the founder of The Daily Telegraph, by his wife, Esther, the 2nd daughter of Godfrey Alexander Cohen, of London, his lordship was born on 28th December 1833, his grandfather being Moses Lionel Levy, a London merchant, who died in 1830. University College, London, afforded Lord Burnham, to give him his present title, his education. On February 20th 1862, he married Harriette Georgiana, whose death occurred on May 25th 1897, (the only daughter of that noted actor manager and author, Mr. Benjamin Nottingham Webster, of Pen-y-Craig, Denbighshire,) by whom he has two sons. The elder, the Hon. Harry Lawson Webster Lawson, M.P., is the Liberal Unionist Member for the Tower Hamlets, Mile End Division, who married Olive, the 2nd daughter of the late General Sir Henry Percival de Bathe, Bt., and has issue, a daughter, Dorothy, now the wife of Captain the Hon. John Spencer Coke, of the Scots Guards. The birth of this lady's son, Gerald Edward, in 1907, made Lord Burnham a great-grand- father. His lordship's younger son is Lieut. -Col. the Hon. William Arnold Webster Lawson, whose splendid services as Commander of the 10th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry in South Africa gained for him the Distinguished Service Order, Queen's Medal, four elasps, and a dual mention in the despatches. On December nth 1875, by royal license, Edward Levy assumed the name of Lawson, in accordance with the terms of his uncle, Lionel Lawson's will, and eleven years later saw him High Sheriff for Buckinghamshire, and President of the Institute of Journalists for the first time, his second Presidency occurring from 1891-2. Created a baronet on October 13th 1892, and raised to the Peerage as Lord Burnham, on July 31st 1903, the additional honour of Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order was bestowed I2i upon his lordship the following year, whilst he is also a Knight of the Rising Sun of Japan, and one of His Majesty's Lieutenants for the City of London. As a Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and until lately a County Alderman for Buckinghamshire, Lord Burnham has ever given generously of his time and substance for the promotion of that Shire's well being. Not very far from the Church is a quaint old timbered building, forming three sides of a square, that, at one time, was utilized as a subpriory of a Benedictine Convent then at Burnham. The probable date of its erection is the early part of the sixteenth century, and this interesting relic of former days was completely restored by Lord Burnham, for the benefit of the Parish of Beaconsfield, in January 1902, in loving memory of the late Lady Lawson. But for his lordship's timely intervention, it is probable that a most interesting specimen of the architecture of the period would have been lost. The building consists of two storeys, the lower being composed entirely of brick, and the upper of large tim- bers, placed closely together, wiih the interstices filled with plaster. Built with all the solidity of the past, whole tree trunks form passages and partitions, while the floors are composed of huge planks, the various steps of solid blocks, merely roughly shaped with an axe, and the chief staircase itself is within a turret of timber. The Village Hall too, was erected by Lord Burnham in 1886, and is designed to accommodate about five hundred persons. Formerly in possession of the Windsor family, Beaconsfield became the property of Burnham Abbey, and, after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, was granted to the Wallers, an ancient family of Kentish origin, one of whose ancestors, Sir Richard Waller, of Speldhurst, Kent, captured Charles, Duke of Orleans, on the field of Agincourt, and kept that unfortunate Prince prisoner in his 122 Kentish home for the next four and twenty years. Edmund Waller, the poet, was lord of the manor of Beaconsfield where he died in 1687, at the age of eighty two, and his tomb is to be seen in St. Mary's Churchyard, within the shelter of a fine walnut tree. It was in 1832 that Sir Gore Ouseley, previously mentioned, purchased Beaconsfield from Henry Edmund Waller, and some fourteen years later his son, the Rev. Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley, sold it to John Hargreaves of Accrington, in Lancashire. Among the charities of Beaconsfield, which amount to nearly ^"300 per annum, are three belonging to the Waller family, one, dated 1699, for £y.io.o, another dated 1810 for £"35, and a third, amounting to £"14.16.9. The parish registers date from 1631. Lord Burnham is lord of the manor of Beaconsfield, and his property amounts to about 4,500 acres. Partial to an outdoor life, he numbers golfing, shooting and riding among his favourite recreations. His town residence is 20 Norfolk Street, Park Lane, W., and his lordship is a member of the Marlborough, Garrick and Beefsteak Clubs. 123 124 Mrs. Burton, of Upton Court Mrs. Burton. Upton Court. Upton Court (West Side Upton Court (south end of House with bed of tulips). [Rrs. Burton, of Upton Court. ■7BLTHOUGH Upton-cum-Chalvey, to give it its full name, is w% now practically part of Slough, in the days of William the Norman, " Opetone," as it was then called, was bestowed on Hugh de Beauchamp by the King, and from Hugh's son, it passed to Merton Convent, in Surrey. Upton Court itself, a fine old building, was formerly a religious house attached to the convent, and in past days included an additional east wing, which was demolished rather more than a hundred years ago. The picturesque portion that remains is of great interest to lovers of the antique. The roof is over seven hundred years old, and very beautiful from an architectural point of view. Evidences of a monastic past are to be found on all sides in the interior. Two recesses in the drawing room, separated by a wall of most unusual thickness are believed to have been used as cells for the monks, although, at the present time, they have been converted into fireplaces ; and in another room, in addition to a fine ceiling, is a quaint old chimney, which enjoys the reputation of containing a hitherto undiscovered secret room. I2 5 " In solo Deo salus ' runs the inscription on one of the squares of Dutch glass in the dining room window, whilst another bears the date of 1667, and over the door of the east front another in- scription evidences the laws of true hospitality, and at the same time, gives rise to much conjecture : — " Welcome ye cominge, 1383 ' (and here is the figure of a monk) " 1434, speed ye parting gest." Upton Court is situated in well laid out grounds, whence charming views of Windsor Castle are obtained, and is now in the occupation of Mrs. Burton. 126 Ernest Callard, Esq. Little Missenden Abbey, Great Missencjen. Little Missenden Abbey. Little Missenden Abbev. Little Missenden Abbev, Great Missenden. ernest Callard, €$q. SITUATED between Great and Little Missenden, in Eastern Buckinghamshire, is the picturesque red brick building known as Little Missenden Abbey for over two hundred years, and at present the residence of Mr. Ernest Callard, of Callard, in Devonshire. One of the oldest and most interesting of the exterior features of the mansion is the square tower, parts of which are believed to date back as far as the thirteenth or fourteenth century, whilst within, the beautiful Large Hall, with its Minstrel Gallery and Arcading, bespeaks an ideal English Country Seat. Born in 1856, Mr. Callard is the third son of the late Thomas Karr Callard, of Cricklewood, by his wife, Anne, the daughter of the late William Black, of Montrose, and was on the roll of High Sheriff for Buckinghamshire for 191 1. By his marriage in 1882, with Isabella, the daughter of Edvvyn Rumbelow, of Freckenham in Cambridgeshire, Mr. Callard has with other issue, a son and heir, Norman Leslie, who was born in 1883, and after receiving his education from Uppingham, is now a Lieutenant in the Reserve of Officers and a former Lieutenant of the South Lancashire Regiment. 127 128 William Walter Carlile, Esq., D.L., J. P. Ulilliam Olaltcr Carlilc esq., D.C., 3.p. SINCERELY interested in the fortunes of Buckinghamshire ; historically, as lord of the manor of Gayhurst ; municipally, as a Deputy Lieutenant, a County Alderman, and a Justice of the Peace ; martially, as a former Lieutenant of the ist Bucks Volunteer Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry and the Royal Bucks Hussars Yeomanry; and politically, for Mr. William Walter Carlile sat for the Northern division of the County in the Conservative interest for eleven years, from 1895 to 1906, and contested North Bucks in 1892, the present owner of Gayhurst devotes much time to the affairs of his County. Born on June 15th 1862, Mr. William Walter Carlile is the only son of the late Mr. James William Carlile, of Ponsbourne Park, in Hertfordshire, and his first wife, Mary, the elder daughter of the late Walter Woodhams Whiteman, of Glengarr, Argyllshire. After receiving his education at Harrow and Clare College, Cambridge, on April 9th 1885 he married Blanche Anne, the third daughter of the late Rev. Edward Cadogan, Rector of Wicken, Northampton- shire. Mrs. Carlile has long identified herself with the revival of the Bucks Point Lace Industry in North Bucks and her efforts have met with well deserved success. 129 Mr. Carlile's father, Mr. James William Carlile, sometime magistrate for Buckinghamshire as well as Hertfordshire, and High Sheriff of the latter County, purchased the Gayhurst estate from its former proprietress, Lady Macdonald, in 1880, at the expiration of Lord Carrington's lease of the manor. Early in the eighteenth century, Gayhurst was the property of the Wrightes George Wrighte, the son of the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Nathan Wrighte, having purchased it from the the descendants of the celebrated Digby family, to whom, in their turn, it came from the Mulshos, Maria, the daughter and sole heiress of William Mulsho having brought it to her handsome husband, Sir Everard Digby, early in the reign of James I. His complicity in the Gunpowder Plot is well known, as well as his terrible fate; and it has been said that no other English family of equal standing suffered in a like degree from the effects of this conspiracy. Sir Everard's son, the great Sir Kenelm Digby, was born at Gayhurst, and to his care of his beautiful, consumptive wife, Venezia Anastasia, the daughter of Sir Edward Stanley, of Tong Castle, Salop, is due the edible snail, that is still a habitant of the surrounding woods, and which was imported especially from France, on Lady Digby's account. In Domesday times Gayhurst, or as it was then called Gothurst Manor was held by the De Noyers under that militant Bishop, Odo of Bayeux. Later, having become its possessors in their own right, the De Noyers continued to hold it until the reign of King Henry IV., when Joanna, the sister and sole heir of the last Almaric de Nouers carried it in marriage to Robert Nevyll. In the reign of King Henry V1I1., Maria, the only daughter and heiress of Michael Nevyll brought it to her husband, Thomas Mulsho, of Thingdon, Northamptonshire, and it continued in this family until it passed to the Digbys as previously mentioned. 130 The oldest portions of the mansion at Gayhurst date from the beginning of the sixteenth century. Nearly a hundred years later, William Mulsho, its then owner, built a new house, formed, as was the fashion of the time in the shape of the letter E, in honour of Queen Elizabeth, and so designed that the older portion of the building made the lowest part of the letter of the alphabet it represented. Later, after George Wrighte had acquired the property in 1704, he made extensive additions to the existing structure, including a grand staircase as well as a dining room and ball room. But the character, mainly Elizabethan, and in parts, Jacobean is faithfully preserved by Mr. Carlile, whose good taste has rendered the interior appointments of Gayhurst worthy of their dignified and stately setting. It would be difficult to imagine anything more thoroughly in keeping with its associations than that fine entrance hall, hung with ancient tapestries, and decorated with the arms and armour of bygone days, whilst the Drawing Room numbers among many other interesting features an exquisite corniced ceiling, the work of Grinling Gibbons, one of Sir Frederick Leighton's early paintings, and last, but not least, a fine collection of curios amassed by Mr. Carlile. The Burleigh, Raleigh, Prince, Guard, Peacock and Digby Rooms are all alike interesting. The original builders saw to it that the last was provided with appropriate hiding places, which probably led to its being used by the Gunpowder Plot conspirators for their meetings. In place of the usual sliding panel, this room was given a moveable floor, so constructed as to revolve when required, and disclose a lower room, whose existence would not be suspected by the ordinary visitor, unacquainted with the secret. The drawers and cupboards too were not the innocent receptacles for clothing that they appeared to be, for secret bolts only known to the initiated being withdrawn, they afforded means of escape to the upper floors in case of need. Gayhurst stands within a beautifully wooded park of some J3 1 250 acres, (wherein are three large fish ponds), nearly three miles from Newport Pagnell in Northern Buckinghamshire. The charm of the house and its surroundings appealed strongly to the Poet Cowper, who, on one occasion, came over from Olney, on a visit, and placed his impressions on record. " The situation is happy," he wrote, " the hothouse in the most flourishing state, and the orange trees the most captivating creatures of the kind I ever saw." The well kept gardens are graced by an antique sundial, bearing the date 1670, and the motto of the Digbys, " Nul que une," while near the front of the house is a pedestal, with lines " To the Memory of a Beautifully Mottled Peacock," a tender reminiscence of days that are no more. The stone Church of St. Peter, originally built at the expense of George Wrighte, the former purchaser of the manor, was restored in 1883 by Mr. James William Carlile, the father of the present owner of Gayhurst, and contains a monument to Sir Nathan Wrighte, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, on which he is represented in his robes of office. Mr. William Walter Carlile is a member of the Carlton, Junior Carlton, and Bath Clubs. 132 The Right Hon. The Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G., D.L., J.P. The Right Hon. The Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G., D.L., J. P. The Seat of The Right. Hon. the Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G., D.L., J.P. Daw's Hill Lodge. The Gates at Daw's Hill Lodge. Cbe Rigbt Bon. ClK Carl Carrington, K-6 M p.C M 6X-m*6- t SIR CHARLES ROBERT WYNN-CARRINGTON was born on May 15th 1843, being the eldest son of the late Robert John, second Baron Carrington, by his second wife, Charlotte Augusta Annabella the younger daughter of Peter Robert, twenty- first Lord Willoughby de Eresby, and descended from the Wynns of Gwydyr through the Dukes of Ancaster. Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, afforded his lordship his education, and, having graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in 1863, on July 15th 1868 he married the Hon. Cecilia Margaret Harbord, the eldest daughter of Charles, fifth Lord Suffield, who occupied the position of Chief of the Staff to the late King, when as Prince of Wales, he set out on his memorable expedition to India in 1875, and until 1901 was Lord of the Bedchamber to His late Majesty, after which date he became Lord in Waiting in Ordinary. 33 To Lord and Lady Carrington were born five daughters, and a son, Albert Edward Robert, Viscount Wendover, who came into the world on April 24th 1895, and for whom His Majesty, King Edward VII. was sponsor, Her Majesty Queen Alexandra having personally honoured their second daughter, Alexandra Augusta in a similar manner, while the late Queen Victoria graciously acted in like capacity for Lady Victoria Alexandrina Carrington, the fifth, and only unmarried daughter, who is one of the six young ladies who had the privilege of bearing Her Majesty, Queen Mary's, train, at the Coronation. His lordship is Joint Hereditary Great Chamberlain of England, with the Marquess of Cholmondeley and the Earl of Ancaster, third Baron Carrington, a member of the Privy Council, Knight of the Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George, and a Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. A Deputy Lieutenant and a Justice of the Peace for both Carnarvon and Bucks, and a county Alderman for the latter shire, a late Hon. Colonel of the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry, and formerly Captain of the Royal Horse Guards, Lord Carrington was also Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen at Arms from 1881 to 1885, when he became Governor of the Colony of New South Wales until 1890, and was appointed Lord Chamberlain to the Household from 1892 to 1895 ; among other high offices that have fallen to his share was that of Special Envoy to the Courts of France, Spain and Portugal to announce the accession of the late King Edward VII. in 1901. The creation of the Earldom dates from July 16th 1895, and in the following year, Earl Carrington and his issue were authorised by Royal License to bear the surname Wynn before that of Carrington. Since 1905 his lordship has been president of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, and in 1906 was ex officio on the Commission of Woods and Forests. 34 A Liberal in politics, he represented Wycombe in Parlia- ment from 1865 to 1868, and was Chairman of the Welsh Land Commission appointed by Mr. Gladstone in 1893. Lord Carrington has achieved the successful establishment of Colonies of small holdings on his some 23,000 acres of estates, which circumstance has led him to advacate a similar policy with regard to the Crown lands, and its general application under the Small Holdings Act. The grandfather of Earl Carrington was Robert Smith, afterwards the first Baron Carrington, who was born on January 22nd, 1752, the third son of Abel Smith, the Nottinghamshire banker and politician. Robert Smith represented Nottingham in no less than five successive Parliaments, and formed a close friendship with the younger Pitt, to whom he was enabled to be of considerable political assistance, and on July 16th, 1796, was raised to the peerage of Ireland as Baron Carrington, of Bulcot Lodge. The next year, on October 20th, as Baron Carrington, of Upton, in Nottinghamshire, he became a Peer of Great Britain. The creation derives additional interest from the fact that it is believed to be the only instance in which King George III. deviated from his custom of never granting an English Peerage to any of his subjects who had been connected with Commerce. About 1795 Earl Wycombe, of Chipping Wycombe, the son of John Fitzmaurice,afterwardsEarlof Shelburne, and Baron of Chipp- ing Wycombe, put up the Wycombe estate for auction in lots, and found a purchaser in the first Lord Carrington, who, in 1803, enter- tained Pitt at his seat at Wycombe Abbey, formerly called Loates, which he rebuilt somewhat after the Gothic style. In 1896 this houses was purchased together with thirty acres of ground by the Girl's Education Co. Ltd., and is now used as a Girls' School, Daw's Hill being the Buckingham seat of the present Earl, who is lord of the Manor. ] 35 Unlike his grandson, the first Lord Carrington was a Tory in his later years, and after he had become a member of the Upper House, was accustomed to entrust his proxy to the Duke of Wellington when unable to attend the House in person. By his first wife, Anne, the daughter of Lewyns Boldero Barnard, of South Cave, Yorkshire, he had, with other issue, a son, Robert John, who succeeded his father as second Baron Carrington, on September 18th 1838, and assumed by Royal Licence the name of Carrington. The father of the third Baron and first Earl, was educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Cambridge, held the office of Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum for Bucks, and was Chairman of the Quarter Sessions until his death on March 17th 1868, besides having served as Liberal M.P. for Bucks, Wendover, and Wycombe. Among the many kindly acts the present Lord Carrington has performed for Buckingham must be instanced his generous gift of a full length portrait of the late King, when Prince of Wales, in 1876, to the Guildhall of High Wycombe. The East Window of the parish church is a memorial of Robert, the first Baron Carrington, and grandfather of the first Earl. In addition to his Buckinghamshire seat, his lordship owns Gwydyr Castle in North Wales, he is the patron of five livings, and his town residence is 53 Prince's Gate, S.W. Lord Carrington is a member of the National Liberal, Brooks, and Marlborough Clubs. 136 George Carrington, Esq., J. P., B.A. George Carrington, esq., 3P- B.fl. CORD of the Manors of Great Missenden, Peterley, Stone, Netherbury, also Overbury, Mr. George Carrington, of Great Missenden Abbey, was born in 1856, the eldest son of the late George Carrington, of Great Missenden Abbey, by his wife, Elizabeth Jane Hodges, of Jersey. Eton, Trinity College, and the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester combined to form his education, the result is told by the letters he is entitled to use :— M.R.A.C, M.R.A.S.E., F.H. A. S., and last, but not least, Mr. Carrington is a Fellow of the Chemical Society. On the site of the present mansion, an Abbey was founded in 1133, for the Canons of St. Augustine, by Sir William de Missenden, according to some accounts, whilst others ascribe its foundation to the D'Oyley family. In any case, the Missendens were of considerable benefit thereto, and Sir William de Missenden granted the Abbey, with other property, the manor of Missenden. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the property passed into the hands of James Oldham Oldham, who practically rebuilt the hour,e. Of the ancient Abbey, little now remains above !37 ground, although Browne Willis especially refers to some exquisite arches that he conjectures belonged to the old Chapter House, and which, later, found a resting place at either end of the greenhouse. The present mansion came into the Carrington family about 1815, and is well situated within an extensive park of some one hundred acres, its stately Gothic embattled pile, in the form of a square, boasts of two turrets, each crowned with a cross, whilst groined ceilings and lofty rooms combine to make a pleasing interior. Mr. George Carrington is a Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire, and a Member of the Junior Carlton Club. 38 The Right Hon. The Baron Chesham Cbe RigM fton, CDe Baron ClKSbatth JOHN COMPTON CAVENDISH is the second, but only surviving son of the late Charles Compton William Caven- dish, 3rd Lord Chesham (by his marriage with the Lady Beatrice Constance, the second daughter of Hugh Lupus, 1st Duke of Westminster, K.G., a Lady of Grace of St. John of Jerusalem and of the Royal Red Cross, who married Mr. John Alexander Moncreiffe in October 19 10) and succeeded his father as 4th Baron Chesham on November 9th 1907. Born on June 13th 1894, n ^ s lordship is an Etonian, and the owner of some 12,000 acres in the provinces alone. Latimer House, his Buckinghamshire seat, is a fine Elizabethan Mansion of red brick with stone dressings, picturesquely situated above Latimer village within a well timbered park, and historically celebrated as a temporary prison of King Charles I., and later, as a refuge for his son, afterwards King Charles II. On the staircase is a handsome painted window, containing the names of by-gone owners, from the time of Edward III. until Earl Burlington, the great-great-grandfather of the present Lord Chesham, and the collection of pictures is particularly fine. 39 Among other memorials of the family in the Church of St. Mary Magdalene — originally built by the ist Lord Chesham — is a tablet to the Hon. Charles William Hugh Cavendish, his lordship's elder brother, who was killed in South Africa in 1900. 4° Sir William Robert Clayton, Bt., D.L., J. P., MA. Sir lUilliam Robert Clapton, Bt., D.C., 3P., l»Jl. IN Harleyford House, the present lord of the manor of Marlow, Sir William Robert Clayton, the 6th Bt., has a fine specimen of Queen Anne architecture, affording exquisite views of Thames scenery, and a good collection of pictures, including works of Gainsborough, Romney, Sir Peter Lely, and others, among which is the portrait of an ancestor, Sir Robert Clayton, knight, Lord Mayor of London in 1679, and another of the present baronet's great-grandfather, Sir William Clayton, the 4th Bt., a good friend to the Royal Bucks Yeomanry. Born in 1842, Sir William Robert Clayton is the only son of the late Captain William Capel Clayton, of the Coldstream Guards, who died in 1882, by his wife, Georgiana, the daughter of the late Robert Wood, and succeeded his grandfather, the 5U1 baronet, in 1866. Sandhurst, Bonn and Cambridge gave him his education. In 1872 he married Aimee Gertrude, daughter of the late Edward Mackenzie, of Fawley Court, and four years later was Sheriff for the Shire. 141 Formerly a Captain in the Royal Bucks Militia, Sir William Clayton is a Magistrate for Norfolk, Surrey and Car- marthen, as well as for Buckinghamshire. His town address is 29 Cumberland Place, W., and he owns Marden Park, Surrey, White Hall, Norfolk, and Alte Cadno in S. Wales, in addition to Harleyford. Sir William's heir is his cousin, Sir Gilbert Clayton-East, Bt. A member of the Carlton and Pratt's Clubs, Sir William finds his chief relaxations in travelling and scholastic interests. 14-2 4 Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks, Esq., B.A. Cbomas Somers Vernon Cocks, €sq. t B J. ONE of the chief landowners in the High Wycombe district is Mr. Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks. Born in 1850, Mr. Cocks is the eldest son of the late Thomas Somers Cocks, of Thames Bank, Buckinghamshire, by his wife, Sarah Louisa, the daughter of the late Charles Wynne Griffith Wynne, of Voelas and Cefnamwlch, over the Welsh border. Eton and later Christ Church, Oxford, afforded Mr. Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks his e lucation, and in 1872, he graduated as Bachelor of Arts. By his marriage with Ethel Mary, the daughter of the late Horace D. Fellowes, he has four children, his heir being an only son, Charles Vernon Cocks, born in 1895. Mr. Cocks' town residence is 31 Lowndes Street, S.W., and he is a member of both the Oxford and Cambridge and Carlton Clubs. H5 i 4 4 The Right Hon. The Baron Cottesloe, D.L., J. P., M.A. CDe Right Ron. Cbc Baron Cottesloe, D.C, 3.P., l».il. SIR THOMAS FRANCIS FREMANTLE, Bt, 2nd Baron Cottesloe, and a Baron of the Austrian Empire, was born on January 30th, 1830, and thus enjoys the distinction of having lived in five reigns. The eldest son of Thomas Francis, 1st Baron Cottesloe, by his wife, Louisa Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Field-Marshal Sir George Nugent, Bt., and grandson of Admiral Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle, G.C.B., of Trafalgar and Copenhagen fame, the present Lord Cottesloe graduated at Balliol College, Oxford, taking 1st Class Honours in Classics, and was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1855. Deeply interested in County affairs, his lordship represented Buckinghamshire in Parliament from 1876- 1885, prior to his accession to the title in 1890, was formerly Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, and at the present time acts as a Deputy Lieutenant, a Magistrate and a County Alderman for Bucking- hamshire. H5 In 1859, he married the Lady Augusta Henrietta, the 2nd daughter of John, 2nd Earl of Eldon, and has, with other issue, a son and heir, the Hon. Thomas Francis Fremantle, who was born in 1862. Lady Cottesloe died in 1906. His lordship's Buckinghamshire seat is Swanbourne House, near Winslow. He is lord of the manor and chief landowner in that district, and patron of one living. Lord Cottesloe's town residence is 43, Eaton Square, and he is a member of the Carlton and Travellers' Clubs. 146 Sir Charles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., M.P., B.C.L., M.A, J.P. Sir CDarles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., i».p., B.C.C., nm., 3.p. IT is given to few among the leading members of the legal pro- fession to have the honour of acting as Attorney General to three generations of the Princes of Wales, and yet this distinction has been enjoyed by Sir Alfred (as he is generally called) Cripps, who, from 1895 ac ted in this capacity for the late King Edward VII., until his accession to the throne in 1901, when he filled a similar office for our present King, George V., until the lamented death of the well-beloved late King last year, when Sir Alfred became Attorney General to the Heir Apparent, Prince Edward of Wales. Descended from a family that has been seated at Cirencester for over four hundred years, many of whose members have been returned to Parliament for this division of Gloucestershire, Sir Alfred is an able representative of a house well-known in Legal, Parliamentary and Ecclesiastical circles. His great-grandfather, Joseph Cripps, of Cirencester, sat for that borough in no less than ten Parliaments, an eloquent testimony of appreciation on the part of his constituents, which renders further comment superfluous. He HI was, moreover, a Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, a Magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for his County. By his marriage with Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Benjamin Harrison, of Lee, on April 27th, 1765, Mr. Joseph Cripps had a son, the Rev. Henry Cripps, M.A., Vicar of Preston All Saints and Stonehouse, and grandfather of Sir Alfred. This gentlemen married Judith, the fourth daughter of William Lawrence, of Circencester, the father of Sir William Lawrence, the 1st Baronet of his family, and one of the most celebrated surgeons of the nineteenth century, who had the additional advantage of pursuing his studies under the guidance of the great Dr. Abernethy. The Rev. Henry Cripps died on November 7th, 1861, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Alfred's father, Henry William Cripps, of Beechwood, of Parliamentary Bar fame, a fine ecclesiastical lawyer, and the author of that famous work, " The Church and Clergy," which has run through several editions. Born in March, 1815, Mr. Henry William Cripps graduated at Oxford with the degree of M.A., and choosing the law for a profession, was called to the Bar on May 8th, 1840. Some quarter of a century later he took silk, and was Benched in the same year. In addition to this, he was Recorder of Lichfield, and Chancellor of the Diocese of Oxford. On March 25th, 1845, he married his cousin, Julia, the eldest daughter of Charles Lawrence, of the Querns, Circencester, Sir Alfred being the third son of this union. Besides the immense amount of work involved by his multifarious duties, Mr. Henry William Cripps was a practical friend to Buckinghamshire, and it is gratifying to note that his painstaking labours as an active Magistrate, Chairman and Vice- Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for a period of twenty-five years, were duly appreciated by its inhabitants, and the first County Council with one consent elected him as their Chairman, well assured that their fortunes were safe in his hands. His death on August 14th, 1899, at the ripe age of eighty-four, was a matter of deep regret to all who knew him. 148 Born on October 3rd, 1852, Sir Alfred Cripps received his education from Winchester College, and thence passed to a brilliant career at New College, Oxford. In 1873 he took a first class in Mathematical Moderations, a similar rank in History in the following year, and a first in I aw in 1875, whilst he obtained a first as a Bachelor of Civil Law in 1876. Called to the Bar on June 13th, 1877, Sir Alfred joined the Midland Circuit, and later became a Bencher of the Middle Temple, having taken silk in 1890, and a Member of the Council for the Duchy of Cornwall. On October 20th, 1881, he married Theresa, the sixth daughter of Richard Potter, of Standish House, Gloucestershire. This lady died in 1893, having had issue four sons and a daughter, Sir Alfred's heir being Alfred Henry Seddon, who was born in 1882, and called to the Bar in 1907. As Vicar General of the Provinces of Canterbury and York, and Chancellor for the latter City, Sir Alfred, like his father, is an authority on ecclesiastical law, and the author of a valuable work entitled "A Practical Treatise on the Law relating to the Church." Since 1895, St. Stephen's has claimed much of his attention. Having sat for Stroud in Gloucestershire for five years, he next represented Stretford, in Lancashire, from 1901 to 1906, and has been twice returned for the Southern Division of Buckinghamshire. Iu politics Sir Alfred is a Unionist and an Imperialist. He is noted for a keenness of insight in debate that has often stood his party in good stead in the House, and on November 9th, 1908, was created a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Formerly a Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and a Governor and Fellow of Winchester College, Sir Alfred, despite his busy Parliamentary life, yet finds time to discharge the duties of a Magistrate for Buckinghamshire, and like his father, is Chairman of the Quarter Sessions. As an author, he has also written, " A Proposal for Equal Representation," and a " Treatise on the Principles of the 49 Law of Compensation," both characterised by his customary grip of the subject in hand. Sir Alfred's one recreation, that of farming, finds practical expression in his beautiful Buckinghamshire home at Parmoor House, near Henley-on-Thames, where, when his Country permits, he is content to rest awhile from his parliamentary labours, and turn his attention from politics to agriculture, amid ideal surroundings. Sir Alfred's town address is 15, Queen's Gate Gardens, S.W., and he is a member of the Oxford and Cambridge, Marlborough, Athenaeum and Carlton Clubs. W 2, 150 Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, Premier Baronet of Great Britain Sir John Lindsay Dashwood. West Wycombe Parle. The Morning^Room atjjWest Wycombe Park. Old Loft in Church Lane, West Wycombe. Sir 3ol)n Cindsap Da$bu)ood t Premier Baronet or Great Britain. BY the untimely death of his father, the late Sir Robert John Dashwood, the gth baronet of his line, on July gth 1908, at the early age of forty-nine, the Premier Baronetcy of Great Britain devolved upon his youthful son, Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, (who was born on April 25th 1896) by his marriage on July 25th 1893 with Clara Adelaide Ida Conyers, the eldest daughter of Major William Bayford Lindsay, formerly of the 14th Regiment. Sir John is the second son of the late Sir Robert and Lady Dash- wood, an infant elder son, Robert Francis Lindsay having been born on September 17th 1894, who only survived his birth a few months. Two other sons were born of this marriage, Robert Henry Lindsay, who came into the world on November 17th 1898, and is the heir presumptive to the title, and Richard Lindsay, born in January 1900, who only lived four days. A daughter, Ida Helen Lindsay, was born on December 2nd 1903. I5 1 Of Dorset origin, the Dashwood family subsequently removed into Somersetshire, and settled at Vellow Wood at an early date. From the marriage of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, Somerset, with Elizabeth Sweeting on September 2nd 1590, spring the three great branches of this ancient family, their eldest son, John, being the ancestor of the Essex and Suffolk Dashwoods ; the second son, Francis, of Vellow Wood, is the direct ancestor of the present baronet of West Wycombe ; and from the fifth son, George, of Hackney, sometime Alderman of London, the Oxfordshire Dash- woods are descended. Sir John Dashwood's ancestor, Francis, the second son of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, was born in 1603, and as a Turkey merchant and a City Alderman was a well-known figure in the London of his day. By his first marriage with Alice, the sister of a brother Alderman, Edmund Sleigh, he had, with other issue, a daughter, Elizabeth, who became the wife of Thomas Lewes, of West Wycombe, also an Alderman of London ; and two sons, the eldest, Sir Samuel, knight, represented the City in Parliament in 1685, and again from 1689 to 1690, whilst 1702 saw him Lord Mayor of London. The third son, Sir Francis, sometime the member for Winchelsea, was born in 1658, and created a baronet in 1707. He was married four times, and today from a grey marble monument in St. Lawrence's Church in West Wycombe, it may be gathered that : — He was exemplary, punctual and honest, and with a quiet conscience departed this life November 4th 1724, aged 75 years. He married four wives, Mary Jennings, lady Mary Fane, Mary King and lady Elizabeth Windsor, and left seven children : Susanna, Mary, Rachel, Francis, Mary, John and Charles. The last three wives lie in the family vault, as do dame Susanna Bridgman, his first daughter, and Mary, her daughter, and also Charles Dashwood King, the said Sir Francis Dashwood's third son, who was cut off at Paris in the flower of his age, whose rectitude of mind and manners made him an ornament, and his death a loss, to social life. 152 By Lady Mary Fane, the daughter of Vere, the fourth Earl of Westmoreland, and one of the co-heirs of the Barony of Le Despencer, whom he married on May 30th 1705, Sir Francis had a son, also Francis, who was born in December 1708, succeeded his father in the title in 1724, and the following year, after the death of his uncle, John, Earl of Westmoreland, was raised to the peerage as Baron Le Despencer, in right of his mother. Sir Francis Dashwood, the second Baronet, or Lord Le Despencer, to give him his later title, travelled to a considerable extent in his youthful days, after which he occupied many and varied positions of importance, including those of Chief of the War Office, Treasurer of the Chambers and Master of the Wardrobe, whilst under Lord Bute, he filled the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1762 to 1763, although it must be confessed that his talents did not lie in the direction of finance, his qualifications being summed up by a wit of the time as a " man to whom the sum of five figures was an impenetrable secret." One measure introduced during his short administration proved most unpopular, being nothing less than a proposed tax of four shillings per hogshead on Cider. Mutterings of insurrection were plainly heard in the cider producing counties, and Sir Francis resigned. Of his undoubted eccentricity many tales are told. But he rebuilt the Church of St. Lawrence on the top of the hill at West Wycombe, and shortly before his death, in 1781, had the caves half way down the same hill, excavated, while the straight piece of road that connects High with West Wycombe at the present time, was made under his direction, in 1752, the obelisk at the corner of the Brabenham road being placed there in commemoration of its construction. Besides acting as Joint Postmaster General for many years, Lord Le Despencer was Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, and evinced a keen interest in the Royal Bucks (King's Own) Militia, in which he held the rank of Colonel. 153 This representative of the family married Sarah, the daughter and heiress of Thomas Gould, of Iver, Bucks, on December 19th 1745, the lady being then the widow of Sir Richand Ellys, the second baronet of his family. Dying without issue, the title next devolved upon his half brother, Sir John, the son of Sir Francis, the first baronet, by his third wife, Mary, the daughter of Major King; and the third baronet, known as Sir John Dashwood-King, assumed his maternal surname by act of Parliament in 1742. His Parliamentary achievements were confined to a three years' representation of Bishop's Castle, whilst his son, also Sir John, the 4th baronet, sat for Wycombe in no less than nine Parliaments and was an active magistrate for Bucks. By his marriage with Mary Anne, the daughter of Theodore Henry Broadhead, of Monk Bretton, in Yorkshire, he had, a son, Sir George Henry Dashwood, afterwards 5th baronet, and member for Buckinghamshire from 1832 to 1835, who also represented Wycombe, his father's seat, from 1837 to 1862, when dying without issue, the title reverted to his brother, Sir John Richard Dashwood, who thus became the sixth baronet, and on his death, unmarried, passed to Sir Edwin Hare Dashwood, his nephew, (the only son of Sir John Richard Dashwood's younger brother, Captain Edwin Sandys Dashwood, of the 10th Regiment) and grandfather of the present represent- ative of the family, who was born on 7th September 1825. On October 25th 1853, Sir Edwin married Roberta Henrietta, the daughter of Sir Robert Abercromby, bt„ his two elder surviving sons being Sir Edwin Abercromby Dashwood, the 8th baronet, who had practical experience of gum digging in New Zealand in early life, and married on August 24th 1889, Florence, the only daughter of Frederick Norton, of Mangantare, New Zealand, who, after his death, in 1893, without male issue, became the wife of Mr. William Selby Low T ndes, of Whaddon Chase. The baronetcy then passed to Sir Edwin's brother, the late Sir Robert John Dashwood, the 9th Bt., and the 154 father of Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, who was born on June 3rd 1859. As a Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and a member of the County Council, he proved a good friend to Buckinghamshire, and one who could ill be spared. In early times, the manor of West Wycombe was in the See of Winchester, and its profits went to the support of the monks thereof. According to the Domesday Record ; — " Walchelin bishop of Winchester holds Wicumbe, for which he is taxed at 19 hides. There are 23 carucates of land, in demesne there are five hides and three plough lands ; there are 27 villeins with eight copy holders who occupy 19 plough lands. There are seven servants, and three mills worth 20 shillings per annum, and a fishery which produces a thousand eels ; seven carucates of pasture, and pannage in the woods for a thousand hogs. For all dues it is worth £15 ; when the bishop received it ^"10 ; in the reign of King Edward £"12. This manor was allotted to the Monks of Winchester for their support, and is now so applied. Stigand held it in the reign of King Edward. In the reign of Edward VI., Bishop Poynet of Winchester, surrendered West Wycombe manor in exchange, and it was allotted by the young King to his uncle, the Protector Somerset. Later, Queen Mary restored it to its former See, but on the accession of Queen Elizabeth, John White, as a Roman Catholic, was deprived of that bishopric, and the estate reverted to the Crown until 1602 when it was granted to Sir Robert Dormer, a member of a very ancient family, whose ancestors accompanied King Edward the Confessor to England on his return from Normandy in 1042. His successor, also Robert, was created Earl of Carnarvon, and fell at Newbury in 1643, in the Royalist cause. It was Charles Dormer, the second and last Earl of Carnarvon of that creation, who, having experienced the usual reverse of fortune incident to hostility to the Parliamentary leaders, disposed of West Wycombe in 1670 to 155 Thomas Lewes, the Alderman husband of Elizabeth, the daughter of Francis Dashwood, merchant, before mentioned, and in 1698 Lewes conveyed it to his brothers-in-law, Sir Samuel and Francis Dashwood, afterwards the first baronet. Later, the manor became vested solely in the younger brother, and has since continued in the family. West Wycombe park was built by Sir Francis Dashwood, the first baronet (it is thought on the site of an older house), and enlarged and ornamented by Lord le Despencer who also designed the gardens and an ornamental lake supplied by the little river Wick, that adds not a little to the charm of the well wooded park of some three hundred acres, and grounds. The house, an imposing structure in several styles, is graced by a beautiful Ionic Portico on its West Front, once called " The Temple of Bacchus, and a large statue of the god is still to be seen within. The South Front contains a colonnade 112 feet in length, surmounted by a loggia, and ornamented by the busts of heroes of antiquity and celebrities, including Lord le Despencer. Within, the art of Josephi Borgnis has imparted magnificence to the ceilings and portions of the walls, his frescoes chiefly representing mythological subjects. The Dining Room door case is of variegated marble, and the chimney piece a fine specimen of the sculptor's art, representing Androcles and the Lion, whilst in the corners of the room are beautiful marble groups of the Four Seasons, after the antiques at Nocton, in Lincolnshire. The Billiard Room is 34 feet long, and contains a large painting, depicting the history of Medusa. Another room leading off the magnificent hall is tapestry clad, the work skilfully portraying a Harvest Home, Boors at a Game of Four Corners, and a Fish Market. This was used by George III as a sittingroom, on his various visits, and the adjoining apartment still known as George Ill's bedroom has a frescoed ceiling and freize of figures in Wedg- 156 wood design. The King's Bed, with its original silk hangings, together with his huge leathern brass-bound chest, ornamented with crowns, are still among the treasures of West Wycombe Park. The ceiling of the State Drawing Room is painted with a representation of a feast of the old time Gods. The white marble mantelpiece represents an exquisite Venus, surrounded by flowers birds and cupids, and the Italian, Spanish and old English cabinets are specimens of rare and wonderful workmanship. The furniture as well as the mirrors is mainly in various styles of exquisite old Chippendale, and a source of delight to the artistic eye. There is moreover, a good library, and the grand staircase is Chippendale inlaid Sheriton. In the grounds, on an island, encircled with trees, is another apartment known as the Music Room. Among the large collection of pictures the house contains mention must be made of the portraits of Sir Francis Dashwood, the first baronet, who died in 1724, the two Marys, his first and third wives, and Lord le Despencer, while a " Holy Family " by Rubens and " Lazarus Rising from the Dead ' by Paul Veronese are very fine. West Wycombe's two churches at the summit and foot of the same hill are both due to the generosity of members of the Dashwood family. The former, that of St. Lawrence, was practically rebuilt by Lord le Despencer in 1763, at a cost of £"6,000, and contains many unusual features, among them being a huge ball at the top of the embattled western tower, capable of seating twelve persons. In the church itself, each windowseat boasts of a cupboard. Mahogany arm-chairs, arranged to pull out from steps, form both reading desk and pulpit. The font is of carved oak, in the shape of a serpent stalking its prey, and amid the four birds seated on a flat top is placed the silver gilt cup. At the east end of the church is the roofless mausoleum built by Lord le Despencer for members of his family, and in the chancel is a painting by Borgnais of The Last Supper. There are also several tablets to the 157 Dashwoods. From its inconvenient position, St. Lawrence Church is only used during the summer. The other Church of St. Paul at the foot of the same hill, was built by Elizabeth, the wife of Sir George Henry Dashwood, the fifth baronet, and opened in 1875. The present Lady Dashwood, too, has always evinced a deep interest in all parochial matters, and has recently been re-elected Churchwarden for West W) combe. Sir John Lindsay Dashwood is lord of the Manor of West Wycombe, the owner of some five thousand acres, and the patron of one living. £ ^ 158 The Right Hon. The Baron Decies, D.S.O. Che Right fton, Che Baron Decks, D.S.O. mAJOR JOHN GRAHAME HOPE DE LA POER HORSLEY- BERESFORD, late of the 7th Hussars, succeeded his brother, William Marcus de la Poer, as 5th Baron Decies, on July 30th, 19 10. Born in 1 866, his lordship is the second son of William Robert John, 3rd Lord Decies, by his wife, Catherine Anne, the daughter of William Dent Dent, of Short Flatt Tower, Northumber- land, and the descendant in the fourth degree of Marcus Beresford, Earl of Tyrone. His lordship has had much military experience in South Africa. In 1896 his services under Colonel Plumer in the Matabele Relief Forces called for mention in the despatches. He was in command of the 37th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry in 1902, and his leadership of the Tribal Horse in Somaliland from 1903-4, gained for him the Distinguished Service Order and a second mention in the despatches. 159 His lordship is unmarried, has acted as A.D.C. to H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught and Lord Connemara, when Governor of Madras, lie is a Major of the Reserve of Officers, and the owner of The Craig, Windermere, and Beresford Lodge, Birchington, as well as his Buckinghamshire seat at Sefton Park. Lord Decies' town residence is 25, Wilton Place. He is a good sportsman, and a member of the Naval and Military, Cavalry and Kildare Street Clubs. m 160 Major James Bogle Delap, J. P. Major Delap. The Manor House, Lillingston Lovel. Iflajor James Bogle Delap, 3-P. mAJOR JAMES BOGLE DELAP, of Monellan, Killygordon, County Donegal, and the Manor House, Lillingstone Loveh in Buckinghamshire, is of Scottish descent, Hugh DunloP (as the name was originally rendered) the son of Alan Dunlop, of Irving, in Ayrshire, having been the first to leave Scotland and settle in Sligo, about 1600. Dunlop and Delap are the same name — in the days when few could spell or write, there was no very marked distinction. Hugh Dunlop's grandson, Robert, altered his family name to Delap, and was living at Ballyshannon some eighty years later. The great-grandson of Robert Delap, also Robert, of Monellan, married Mary Anne, the only child of James Bogle, about 1776, by whom he had, with other issue, three sons, the eldest, Samuel Francis Delap, of Monellan, being the grandfather of the subject of the present sketch ; the second, Colonel James Bogle, of Stoke Park, Surrey, married Harriet, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Colonel Thomas Cranley Onslow, the second son of Thomas, Earl of Onslow, and grandfather of the present Earl, and the third son, 161 William Drummond, of Monasterboice in Co. Louth, Ireland, took the name of Dunlop definitely. Colonel James Bogle Delap purchased the Lillingstone Lovel estate in 1821, and dying in 1850, without issue, bequeathed the property to his widow for life, after which it came to his nephew, the late Rev. Robert Delap, of Monellan, the son of Samuel Francis Delap, and the father of Major Delap, by his marriage with Isabella, the youngest daughter and co-heir of Sir James Galbraith, the first to hold that now extinct baronetcy. Born on January 8th, 1847, James Bogle Delap was educated at Eton, and on February 7th, 1872, married Marion, the second daughter of Dr. Protheroe Smith, by whom he has with other issue, a son and heir, James Onslow Kingsmill Delap, who was born in 1 88 1. The latter by his marriage with Dorothy Audrey, the only daughter of Duncan Davison of Sedgefield, Durham, became the father of a son, Hugh Alan in 1906, the grandson of Major Delap. A Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire, an Hon. Major (retired), and formerly a Captain in the Royal Bucks Hussars Yeomanry Cavalry, Major Delap also acted as High Sheriff for Donegal in 1874, an d is Lord of the Manors of Lillingstone Lovel in Buckinghamshire, and Netherbury in Bedfordshire. He built the present Manor House at Lillingstone Lovel, and came to reside there in the year 1887. In Domesday times, Lillingstone Lovel belonged to the King, but in the latter part of the thirteenth century, it became the property of the Dauntesy, or D'Aneci family, for which reason it was known as Lillingstone Dauntesy, as well as Lillingstone Magna, the neighbouring parish of Lillingstone Dayrell being designated Lillingstone Parva. William Lovel, of Minster Lovel, was the first to obtain a grant of free warren over all the manor and lands of Lillingstone Dauntesy about 1366. In 143 1, John, 10th Lord Lovel, was in ib2 possession of this estate, and on the mysterious disappearance of his successor, Francis, Lord Lovel, after fighting on behalf of Lambert Simnel, at the battle of Stoke in 1487, the estate escheated to the Crown. By one of those most probably compulsory exchanges dear to the heart of that most arbitrary of monarchs, King Henry VIII., Lillingstone Lovel passed into the possession of Sir Nicholas Wentworth in 1546, and more than a century later, in 1682, it was carried by marriage into the Cresswell family, when its then lord, John Cresswell, took the additional name of Wentworth. In 1784, on the death of William Wentworth Cresswell, the property passed to his brother-in-law, Major Drake, for life, after which it was left to his cousin, the Hon. Edward Onslow, in whose time the estate was greatly neglected, and the old mansion of 16th century date, demolished, whilst the ancient deer-park was con- verted into pasture land. In the early part of the next century, as previously mentioned, the estate was purchased by Colonel James Bogle Delap, of Stoke Park, the great-uncle of Major Delap. Another interesting fact about Lillingstone Lovel is that, although the parish lies close to the borders of Northamptonshire, yet, until 1844, it was always considered to belong to the County of Oxford, and is shown as such in all the old maps of the County. Major Delap is the last remaining representative of the Bucks Horse Artillery, which continued to exist after their obsolete guns had been given up, and they were granted the privilege of wearing their old uniform though they were incorporated into the Royal Bucks Hussars, in which Regiment they worked as the First Squadron, and formed on the right of the Line. The other officers who served in this Squadron with Major Delap were: — Major General the late Lord Chesham, K.C.B., Lieut. -Colonel Purefoy Fitzgerald, Lieut. -Colonel Alfred Locker, Arthur Dent, Esq., and Walter Carlile, Esq. Major Delap is a member of the Carlton Club. 163 164 The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. irt and Grounds. Taplow Court and Grounds. «: .'.Central Hal], Taplow Court. V Che Right bon. Che Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.C., 3.P. B.fl. ONE of the finest athletes and sportsmen of his time is Lord Desborough, the President of the Marylebone Cricket Club, the (popular, re-elected) President of the Thames Punting Club, the winner of the Amateur Punting Championship for three years, and the Ex-President of both the Oxford University Athletic and Boating Clubs, also President of the British Olympic Association, Amateur Fencing Association, Lawn Tennis Association and Croquet Association. His lordship's sporting achievements date from his school and College days. After playing in the Harrow Eleven in the early seventies, and representing Oxford in the three miles race against Cambridge in 1876, he took part in the race against the latter University in 1877-78. As a Swimmer, he enjoys the distinction of having twice traversed Niagara. Flis lordship is a well-known Alpine climber, and as a hunter in both India and the Rockies has had many exciting experiences when in pursuit of big game ; whilst his name will be long remembered as the winner of the Epee prize in the military Tournament of 1904-6. Among this variety of sportsmanlike pursuits, perhaps his lordship inclines more especially towards rowing. His has been ■65 the honour of having stroked an eight across the Channel. He is indeed a firm believer in the oar as the means whereby the history of mankind has been largely moulded. On February 22nd 19 10, in a fascinating lecture delivered at the Philosophical Institution in Edinburgh, entitled "The Story of the Oar," Lord Desborough when indicating the part the oar had played in history, remarked : — It is true that the use of the oar is now dying out — it has been conquered b} stream and other methods of Mechanical propulsion — but I hope you will agree that I have not exaggerated the importance of the part played by the oar in the history of the world. Its beat has been heard through the centuries since the world began, and the prizes of nations skilled in its use have been principalities and empires and wealth beyond the dreams of avarice. In the world of politics, Lord Desborough represented Wycombe from 1900 to 1905 in the Conservative interests, and at the present time is Chancellor of the Primrose League. In 1892 he sat for Hereford, having previously represented Salisbury from 1880 to 1882, and from 1885 to 1886; and in 1885 acted as private secretary to Sir William Harcourt, at that time Chancellor of the Exchequer. Since 1904, his lordship has been a member of the Tariff Commission, whilst his interest in the agricultural welfare of the Country led him to accept the Chairmanship of the Central Chamber of Agriculture four years ago. He has officiated in a like capacity for the Buckinghamshire Chamber of Agriculture and has identified himself with the Royal and Berkshire similar societies. The descendant in the fifth degree from Pascoe Grenfell, the son of John Grenfell of St. Just's, who was born in 1692, and settled in Penzance Lord Desborough's great-great-grandfather, also Pascoe Grenfell, the second son of the ancestor of the same name 166 before mentioned, took up his abode in Marazion, in Cornwall, and later became a London merchant, after which he was appointed Consul to the States of Holland. By his wife, Mary, the daughter of William Tremenheere, an attorney of Penzance, he had issue four sons and four daughters, the eldest, his namesake, being Pascoe Grenfell, the politician, who wasborn at Marazion, on September 3rd 1 76 1, and subsequently represented Great Marlow and Penrhyn in Parliament during a period of service in the House of Commons that extended over twenty five years. A staunch supporter of Wilberforce as regards the abolition of slavery, Mr. Pascoe Grenfell, himself an authority on finance, gave much of his attention to the proceedings of the Bank of England ; and the custom of publishing accounts periodically by the Bank was inaugurated chiefly through his influence. Mr. Grenfell also identified himself with his father's and uncle's extensive London business, connected with tin and copper ores, and later was associated with Thomas Williams of Temple House, Great Marlow, in the development of the industries of Anglesey and Cornwall, of which concerns he ultimately became the guiding spirit. As a financier, his speeches on the currency were remarkable for the clear straight-forward manner jn which his statements were presented. Mr. Grenfell also filled the office of Governor of the Royal Exchange Insurance Company, and was one of the Commissioners of the Lieutenancy of London. His ardour for politics remained the ruling passion throughout his life, his last contest being gallantly fought' at the age of seventy, when he stood for Buckinghamshire in the Liberal interests in 1831, and put up a splendid four days' fight ; although, as a strict supporter of the purity principles in the conduct of elections (and the corruption of the day was notorious), he stood no chance of being elected. Mr. Pascoe Grenfell also enjoyed the friendship of many distinguished Whigs, including Brougham, Grattan, Ponsonby, Romilly, Whitbread, and many others. He was twice married. By his first wife, his cousin, Charlotte Granville, who died on May 167 2nd i79°> ne na d, with other issue, a son, Charles Pascoe, who was born on April 4th 1790, who by his marriage on June 22nd 1819 with the Lady Georgiana Isabella Frances Molyneux, the eldest daughter of Philip, the second Earl of Sefton, had two sons. The elder, Charles William, the father of Lord Desborough, was born on March 17th 1823, subsequently represented Sandwich and Windsor in Parliament, and was identified with the 2nd Middlesex Militia, in which he held the rank of Captain. By his marriage with Georgina Caroline, the eldest daughter of the late Rt. Hon. William Saunders Sebright Lascelles, and granddaughter of Henry, the second Earl of Harewood, Captain Grenfell connected his own with a family of high antiquity, who have played their part in history since the days of the first Edward, his eldest son being William Henry Grenfell, the present Lord Desborough, who was born on October 30th 1855. The death of his father, Captain Grenfell, occurred only six years later, and his lordship therefore succeeded his grandfather, Mr. Charles Pascoe Grenfell, on his death on March 21st 1867. By his second wife, the Hon. Georgiana St. Leger, the youngest daughter of the first Viscount Doneraile, Mr. Pascoe Grenfell, the great-grandfather of Lord Desborough, became the grandfather of Lord Grenfell, of Butler's Court, Beaconsfield, and Mr. Charles Seymour Grenfell, of Elibank, Taplow ; whilst his two youngest daughters, Charlotte Maria French and Frances Eliza, married respectively, James Anthony Froude, the historian, and the Rev. Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley, Chaplain to Queen Victoria, and the well-known author and novelist. On Febuary 17th 1887, Lord Desborough married Ethel Anne Priscilla, a co-heir of the Barony of Butler, and the daughter of the late Hon. Julian Henry Charles Fane by his wife, the Lady Adina Eliza Anne, the third daughter of George Augustus, the sixth Earl Cowper, and has, with other issue, a son and heir, Julian 168 Henry Francis, born on March 30th 1888, who is now a Lieutenant in the 1st Dragoons. In 1882, Lord Desborough, to give him his present title, (although he was not raised to the peerage until December 30th 1905), acted as Parliamentary Groom in Waiting, aad among other honours, he ranks as a Knight of Grace of St. John of Jeruslem, a member of the Grecian Royal Order of the Redeemer, and a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Commerce too owes much to his executive ability. As President of the London Chamber of Commerce, his lordship leaves no stone unturned to further the prosperity of Home Trade and Manufactures, and strongly advocates the introduction of British and Empire Trademarks, by which intending purchasers may be able to see for themselves the country of origin of goods, and one and all furthur the national cause, by buying in the home markets. Nor, among the manifold occupations of a more than usually busy life, has Lord Desborough been neglectful of his duty towards Buckinghamshire. He filled the office of High Sheriff for the county in 1890, acted as Mayor of Maidenhead from 1895 to 1897, and is a Justice of the Peace for both Berks and Bucks. The Chairmanship of the Thames Conservancy Board makes other demands on his valuable time. He is a Deputy Lieutenant for the Tower Hamlets, and has, among his other multifarious occupations, yet found leisure to contribute to the world of literature forceful articles on such subjects as Bimetallism, the House of Lords, Rowing, and the like. Taplow Court, his lordship's beautiful Buckinghamshire seat, is an imposing red brick mansion, with Bath stone dressings, after the Tudor style of architecture, standing in a well timbered park and grounds of about two hundred acres in extent, the latter being well planted wiih choice shrubs. Among the many 169 interesting features is an especially fine avenue of Cedars of Lebanon, and the beauty of the hanging woods along the banks of the Thames between the Taplow and Cliveden estates is unrivalled in English pastoral scenery. From the house, distant views of Windsor Castle and the spires of Eton College add to the charm of its surroundings, whilst Taplow Court enjoys the further distinction of having been among the earliest country seats honoured by a visit from their Majesties, the present King and Queen, who motored over from Windsor this Spring, on a visit to Lord and Lady Desborough. Lord Desborough owns Taplow manor, which in former davs was held by Sir Henry Guildford under the Crown in the time of James I. after which it passed to the Hampsons, and about 1700, Sir Dennis Hampson sold the property to the Earl of Orkney, a distinguished soldier in the days of the great Duke of Marl- borough and author of many improvements at Taplow Court, including the beautiful Norman Saloon, with its polished marble pillars supporting fine ornamental arches. In August 1852, the manor passed by purchase to Mr. Charles Pascoe Grenfell, the grandfather of Lord Desborough. Within the Church of St. Nicholas, at Taplow, a modern structure, standing near the site of the former old church, is the Grenfell family pew, wherein may be seen a brass to Captain Charles William Grenfell, Lord Grenfell's father, who died in 1861. The church also contains a large brass to Mr. Pascoe St. Leger Grenfell, the father of Lord Grentell, and another to Claud George Grenfell, the brother of Lord Desborough, formerly a Lieutenant in Thorneycroft's Horse, who was killed during the South African War, at Spion Kop, on January 24th 1900. The ancient churchyard, which is close to Taplow Court, derives additional interest to the antiquarian, from the tumulus I70 which was opened in 1883, and found to contain many interesting Anglo-Saxon relics, in the shape of gold fibulae, a gold buckle, an iron sword, silver armlets, etc., which were subsequently presented to the British Museum. Lord Desborough is a keen rider to hounds, an enthusiastic fisherman, and takes full advantage of the facilities afforded by the Thames in the neighbourhood of Taplow for the enjoyment of both rowing and punting when his duties permit. His lordship is a member of the Travellers', Turf, Bath and Carlton Clubs. 171 7 172 The Right Hon. The Baron Devonport, P.C., D.L., J. P. Che Right Bon. Che Baron Deoonport, P.C, DC, 3.P. SIR HUDSON EWBANKE KEARLEY, created a Baronet on July 22nd 1908, was sworn of the Privy Council in October of the following year, and raised to the Peerage, as Baron Devonport, of Wittington, in Buckinghamshire, on July 15th 1910. The youngest son of the late George Ewbanke Kearley, of Uxbridge, by his wife, Mary Ann, the daughter of Charles Hudson, of Old Ford, Lord Devonport was born on September 1st 1856. The Liberal Member for Devonport for many years, his lordship was appointed the first Chairman of the Port of London authority in 1909, previously he held office as Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, and in earlier years, was Senior Partner in the well-known firm of India Merchants, Kearley and Tonge. ! 73 In January 1888, he married Selina, the youngest daughter of Edward Chester of Blisworth, in Northamptonshire, and has, with other issue, a son and heir, the Hon. Gerald Chester Kearley who was born in 1890. Yet another eminent man who owes his education to Cranleigh, Lord Devonport is a Magistrate for both Surrey and Buckinghamshire, and a Deputy Lieutenant for the latter County. In 1898 he purchased his beautiful seat at Wittington from the University of Oxford, and in 1903 restored the Old Manor House, an interesting building of 15th century date. His lordship's town residence is 41 Grosvenor Place, W., and he is also the owner of Gwylfa Hiraerthog, in North Wales, a good sportsman, and a member of the Reform and Devonshire Clubs. *74 Coningsby Ralph Disraeli, Esq., D.L., J. P. Coningsbp Ralph Disraeli, esq., D.C., 3.p» CHE present owner of picturesque Hughenden, Mr. Coningsby Ralph Disraeli, was born on February 25th 1867, being the only son of the late Ralph Disraeli, some time Deputy Clerk to Parliament, by his wife, Katherine, the daughter of the late Charles Trevor, and nephew and heir of one of England's greatest statesmen, the late Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield. Charterhouse School and New College, Oxford, afforded Mr- Disraeli his education, and on March 2nd 1897, ne married Marion Grace, the only daughter of the late Edward Silva, of Testcombe, in Hampshire. •\s a citizen, Mr. Disraeli is ever mindful of his obligations, he is a magistrate for Buckinghamshire, a Deputy-Lieutenant, and a County Alderman ; whilst his interest in, and sense of the importance of the Territorial movement is exemplified by his connection with the Royal Bucks Hussars Yeomanry, in which he holds the rank of Major. In politics, Mr. Disraeli is a staunch Conservative, and represented the Altrincham Division of Cheshire for no less than fourteen years, after which, in 1910, he contested the Rushcliffe Division, in Nottinghamshire. '75 The Disraeli family, after a sojourn in Spain, settled for a time in Venice, whence Benjamin Disraeli, the great grandfather of the present representative of the family, came to England in the middle of the eighteenth century. By his wife, Sarah Villareal de Seproot, lie left an only child, Isaac Disraeli, formerly of Blooms- bury, and later, of Bradenham House, that speculative philosopher, omnivorous reader and author, once a frequenter of the Reading Room of the British Museum, whose " Curiosities of Literature ," " Calamities of Authors ' and " Amenities of Literature" (the last written when overtaken by blindness, with the aid of his daughter), have long since become popular with the reading public. Bv his wife, Maria, the daughter of George Bassevi, he left, with other issue, two sons, Benjamin, afterwards the Earl of Beaconsfield, and Ralph, the father of Mr. Coningsby Disraeli. Devoted to Literature from his youth, Isaac Disraeli wrote verse at the age of ten, and in his sixteenth year, greatly daring, favoured Dr. Johnson with an example of his poetry. In the light of the part politics have played in the lives of his descendants, it is surprising that for this member of the family they had no interest ; and his eldest son, Benjamin, who was born in 1804, was articled to a firm of Solicitors in Old Jewry at the age of seventeen, and duly entered Lincoln's Inn in 1824, a prosaic, but eminently useful beginning for a boy destined to realise his great ambition : — to be Prime Minister of England. Benjamin Disraeli's talent for authorship was undoubtedly inherited, but his genius for politics was his own. By his marriage on August 28th 1839 with Mary Anne, the widow of Wyndham Lewis, M.P., of Pantgwynlais Castle, in Glamorganshire, and daughter of Captain John Viney Evans of the Royal Navy, he gained a true helpmate, and when the Viscountess Beaconsfield died on November 30th 1868, her bereaved husband's remark that he felt he had no longer a home, was no more than the truth. 176 A long political connection with Buckinghamshire, dating from 1847, was the Earl's, for he represented that County for almost thirty years, throughout the most brilliant period of his life, including the time he held the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, and his two Premierships, until in 1876 he was created Earl of Beaconsfield. Five years later, on April 19th i88r, England, on the death of this great, and most far-sighted statesman, mourned a national loss. Although the interest in Hughenden Manor centres in its having been the home of this great man, " Huchendene," as it was termed, was owned in Saxon times by Queen Edith, the wife of that monastic king, Edward the Confessor, and after the Conquest, was numbered among the possessions of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and Nigel, the son of Roger de Albigni. According to the Domesday Record : — William, son of Oger, holds Huchedene, of the Bishop, for which he is taxed at ten hides. There are ten plough lands. In demesne there are two, and 15 villeins with three copyholders have eight plough lands. There are five servants, two carucates of pasture and pannage for 600 hogs. For all dues it is worth £10 ; when he received it £6, in the reign of Edward the Confessor £"7, when Edith his queen possessed it. Later, following Bishop Odo's disgrace and banishment, King Henry I. granted Huchedene to Geoffrey de Clinton, his Lord Chamberlain (the ancestor of the present Lord Clinton), who is believed to have constituted this manor part of the endowment of his Priory at Kenilworth. At all events the Priors of Kenil- worth continued to be lords of Hughenden until the Suppression of the Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. Thereafter, the great Dormer family became lords of Hughenden, until, by marriage, it passed to Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, and about 1738 the estate was purchased by Charles Savage from Sir William Stanhope. *77 Later, in 1786, it devolved upon a niece, Ellen, Countess of Conyngham, widow of the first Earl, and subsequently passed to her nephew, John Norris, the well-known scholar and antiquary. He died in 1845, and very shortly afterwards the estate was pur- chased by Benjamin Disraeli. Hughenden itself is an imposing square, brick mansion, in the Jacobean style, with two wings, beautifully situated within a well wooded park, and commanding exquisite views of the sur- rounding country. One of the most interesting portraits in the Drawing Room is that of Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, presented to Lord Beaconsfield on his seventieth birthday, and let into a panel of the chimney piece is a portrait of the Viscountess Beaconsfield. The Library, which looks on to the fine lawns, is a handsome apartment, containing a large collection of historical and classical works, and here it was that Lord Beaconsfield spent most of his leisure, after transacting the affairs of state in his study, which is situate in another part of the house. Both hall and staircase are adorned with many pictures of celebrities and friends. The ceiling of the Entrance Hall is finely groined, whilst the chief feature of the Dining Room is a curious arch, wherein the horizontal and pointed styles are wonderfully blended. Without the house, in the grounds, are extensive lawns, graced by stately peacocks, and planted with rare shrubs, not the least remarkable being the number of young cedars that were brought from Lebanon, and planted by the late Earl himself. There is also a tree planted by the late King Edward VII., when Prince of Wales, and two firs, which were planted by Queen Victoria and the Princess Beatrice in 1877, when on a visit to Hughenden. Hard by lies Hughenden Wood, with the " German Forest," the former one of the largest in Buckinghamshire, and it may be added that the scenery uniformly reveals the county at its best and loveliest. 178 An obelisk on a hill between the two Tinkers' Woods was erected to the memory of Isaac Disraeli, the grandfather of Mr. Coningsby Disraeli, by the Viscountess Beaconsfield. After the death of the Earl of Beaconsfield, the little church of St. Michael and All Angels that stands within the park, was enriched by several fine stained windows, and other costly gifts, including a monument in the chancel, in white Sicilian marble, near the late Earl's pew, erected by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. TO THE DEAR AND HONOURED MEMORY OF BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF BEACONS- FIELD, this memorial is placed by his grateful and affectionate Sovereign and friend, Victoria, R.I., ' l King's love him that speaketh right," Proverbs xvi. 13. Feb. 27th, 1882." The mural paintings in this church are among the finest specimens of ecclesiastical art. Originally of Norman date, the edifice was almost entirely rebuilt in 1874, with the exception of the chancel arch, South doorway, and the so-called De Montfort chapel which contains some interesting monuments, including the Hughenden Crusader, for it is generally supposed that some of the great Earl Simon's descendants lived at Hughenden, in a house called Wreck Hall, under an assumed name, after the disastrous issue of the Barons' War at the end of Henry Ill's reign. Mr. Coningsby Disraeli is one of the chief landowners in the district ; his heir presumptive is his sister, Dorothy, the wife of Alexander Whitelaw, of Gartshore, a member of the Royal Company of Archers, the King's Scottish Body Guard. Mr. Disraeli's town residence is 89, Onslow Square, W., and the Carlton, Garrick and White's Clubs number him among their members. 179 i8o William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Dvake. Esq., D.L., J. P. Ulilliam Ulpkebam Cpru)l)itt=Drake, esq., D.C., 3.P. re SHARDELOES, the Buckinghamshire seat of Mr. William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Drake, lord of the Manor of Amersham and chief landowner, is beautifully situated within a well- timbered park of some seven hundred acres, and first came into the possession of the Drake family about 1605, through the marriage of Joan, the daughter and heiress of William Tothill, (sometime the host of Queen Elizabeth, and the recipient of her portrait and that of her chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton) with Francis Drake of Esher, an ancestor of Mr. W. W. Tyrwhitt-Drake. The second son of the late Mr. Thomas Tyrwhitt-Drake by his first wife, Julia Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of the late John Stratton of Turweston House, Mr. William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Drake was born in 1851. By his marriage with Augusta, the third daughter of the late Rev. Herbert Richard Peel, of Thornton Hall, he has a son and heir, William, who was born in 1885. On the death of his elder brother, Thomas William, in 1900, Mr. W. W. Tyrwhitt-Drake succeeded to Shardeloes. A Justice of the Peace and a Deputy Lieutenant for the County, Mr. Tyrwhitt-Drake is the patron of several livings, and both St. Mary's Church and the town of Amersham itself, are rich in memories of bygone generations of his ancient race. 181 182 John Edward Montague Bradish - Ellames, Esq. 3obn €dward iflontaguc Bradisb= tllamcs, esq. £ITTLE Marlow Manor House, the seat of Mrs. Bradish- Ellames, dates partly from 1200 but has a modern frontage. Standing on the northern bank of the Thames, well laid out grounds form pleasing surroundings, and the many noble specimens of trees therein contribute in no small measure to complete a charming picture. Mr. John E. M. Bradish-Ellames is the only son of the late Lieut -Colonel William Bradish-Ellames, by his wife, Amy Gwendoline, the youngest daughter of the late John Piatt, M.P., of Werneth Park, Lancashire, and Carnarvonshire, and was born in 1896. Colonel Bradish-Ellames died in 1905, when his son was barely ten years of age. Westhorpe House and Esate, Bucks, also belong to Mr. Bradish- Ellames. 183 184 Sir George Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. Sir 6eorge Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. CHICHELEY Hall, near Newport Pagnell, in North Bucks, and Bedford Farm, Johannesburg, are the widely apart residences of that prominent Member of the first South African Parlia- ment, Sir George Herbert Farrar, Chairman of the East Rand Proprietory iMines, and sometime leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly of the Transvaal. Born on June 17th, 1859, the son of the late Dr. Charles Farrar, of Chatteris in Cambridgeshire, Sir George Farrar was educated at the Modern School, Bedford, and in 1892 married Ella Mabel, the daughter of the late Dr. Charles William Waylen, of the Indian Medical Service, and has issue. To none of England's sons did the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa afford greater opportunities for demonstrating their affection for the Motherland than to Sir George, as Major on the Staff of the Colonial Division, and his elder brother, Captain John Percy Farrar, in connection with the Kaffrarian Rifles. Both rendered willing and valuable service, in recognition of which, they received the Distinguished Service Order, being also mentioned in despatches, and were the recipients of the Queen's medal with clasps. I Two years later, Sir George Farrar was created a Knight Bachelor, and in ign became a Baronet mainly for his services in connection with the formation of the Union of South Africa. Formerly amongst the possessions of Tickford Abbey, after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Chicheley Manor was granted to Cardinal Wolsey by Henry VIII., and later, by Queen Elizabeth to Anthony Cave, whose daughter and heiress, Judith, brought it to the Chesters. Her son, Sir Anthony Chester, Kt., of Chicheley, was in attendance on Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Camp, and had command of a troop of horse, drawn up to repel the threatened Spanish Invasion. In the days of that gallant cavalier, his son, Sir Anthony Chester, Bt., Chicheley Hall suffered severely at the hands of the Roundheads, so much so that it was pulled down by the 4th Baronet, Sir John Chester, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the present imposing brick mansion, with stone dressings, erected on the same site, after the style of Hampton Court. Pleasantly situated within extensive grounds wherein a lake of considerable size adds to the charm of its surroundings, Chicheley Hall contains many portraits of the Chester family. Another interesting feature is an old oak-pannelled wainscotted room that appears to belong to an earlier date than the rest of the house, and is believed to have formed part of a mansion erected by Anthony Cave. On a stout beam over the fireplace is the following incription : — Cave ne Deum offendas, cave ne proximum laedas cave ne tua negligentia familarum deseras, 1550. Whilst an additional touch of romance was supplied by the discovery of a skeleton concealed within a cupboard on the laundry stairs. The three storied tower, standing within a short distance of the mansion, was erected in 1735 by the 5th Baronet of the Chester 186 family, for the purpose of supplying the house with water from a spring. A noted all-round sportsman, Sir George is still a good man to hounds or with a gun, and has in former years several times won the Oakley Point to Point Race — open to any Hunt — and shares to the full the innate love of an Englishman for a horse, and the inborn interest in racing. He has been for many years a breeder of high class racing stock at Chicheley and has himself some horses in training at Newmarket. During the last few years he has paid great attention to the breeding of pedigree cattle and his herd of pure Prieslands and Red Lincolns at his estate near Johannesburg and at his farms at Standerton and Goovehoep in the Transvaal are famous throughout South Africa. He is fast becoming a devotee to golf. Sir George Farrar is a member of the Carlton Club. j 87 1 88 Sir Lancelot Aubrey Fletcher, Bt. Sir Cancclot Aubrcp-FletclKr, Bt. 71 S the present representative of the old Aubrey family, through ^1 the marriage of his great-grandmother, Catherine, the daughter of Henry Lintot, of Southwater, Sussex (by his wife Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Sir John Aubrey, the third baronet of Llantrithyd) with Sir Henry Fletcher, the first Baronet of Clea Hall, Cumberland, in 1768, Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher's connection with Buckinghamshire is of very ancient date. The Fletchers are a well-known family, of north country origin, and derive from Henry Fletcher, of Cockermouth Castle, who enjoyed the distinction of acting as Guardian to Queen Mary of Scots on her journey from Workington. His great-grandson, Sir Henry Fletcher' was created a baronet on February 19th 1640, and lost his life during that severe Royalist defeat at Rowton Heath in 1645. His son, represented Cumberland in Parliament from 1 66 1 to 1700, and with the death of the third baronet, Sir Henry, unmarried, in 171 2, the first baronetcy came to an end. Philip Fletcher, a younger son of Sir Richard Fletcher, knight, of Cockermouth, and uncle of Sir Henry Fletcher, 1st Bt. thus became the ancestor in the fifth degree of Sir Henry Fletcher, 1st Bt. 189 of Clea Hall, whose connection with the East India Company led to his being elected a member of its direction, and who continued to represent Cumberland in Parliament for 34 years, from 1786 to 1802. The present baronetcy dates from 1782. And Sir Henry's marriage with Elizabeth Lintot, the daughter of Catherine Aubrey and her husband, Henry Lintot, was the means of connecting the Aubrey and Fletcher families, as before stated. The grandson of the first baronet, also Sir Henry Fletcher was born on September 18th, 1807, and by his marriage in 1834 with Emily Maria, the second daughter of George Browne, sometime a member of the Bombay Council, became the father of six sons and as many daughters, the eldest, his heir being Henry, afterwards the fourth baronet of his line, who was born on September 24th 1835, and the fourth, but now eldest surviving son, Sir Lancelot. Sir Henry Fletcher, as he then was, succeeded his father in 1851, and after sitting for Horsham as a Conservative from 1880 to 1885, from thence on till his death last year was member for Lewes, and from 1885-6 acted as parliamentary groom-in-waiting to Her Majesty, the late Queen Victoria. A Member of the Privy Council, and a Companion of the Bath, Sir Henry rendered military service, having joined the 69th Regiment as Ensign in 1853, and was Lieutenant of the Grenadier Guards in 1855, whilst later he became Colonel commanding the Sussex and Kent Volunteers Infantry Brigade. On May 10th 1859, he married Agnes, the youngest daughter of Colonel Sir John Morrillyon Wilson, C.B., K.H., of the Royal Chelsea Hospital, who survives him. And there being no issue of the marriage, on his death on May 19th 1910, Sir Henry Aubrey- Fletcher, as he became after 1903, was succeeded by his brother, Sir Lancelot, who on June 23rd of the same year, assumed the additional name of Aubrey by royal license. Born on March 13th 1846, Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher was 190 admitted a solicitor in 1869 ; he has been twice married, his first wife being Gertrude Isabella, the third daughter of the late John Howell, of Hampstead, who died in 1878, having had issue, two years previously, an infant son, Lancelot Henry, who only survived his birth five days. On April 18th 1882, Sir Lancelot married Emily Harriet, the daughter of the late Rev. Nugent Wade, M.A., Canon of Bristol. A son, Henry Lancelot, now a Lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards, and a Member of the Royal Victorian Order was born in 1887, subsequent to the birth of a daughter, Kathleen Margaret, in 1884. The heavy loss that Sir Lancelot has sustained by the death of Lady Aubrey-Fletcher at Ellesborough Manor in April last evoked widespread regret and sympathy from the inhabitants of Chilton, Dorton, Oakley, Boarstall and the neighbouring villages. Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher is the patron of seven livings, lord of the manors of Boarstall, Chilton, Dorton, Brill and Oakley, and chief landowner of that district. Dorton House, Chilton House, and Ellesborough Manor in Buckinghamshire, Llantrithyd in Glamorganshire, and Clea Hall, in Cumberland, are his chief residences. Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher is a member of the Union Club. 191 ig2 John Bevill Fortescue, Esq., D.L., /.P., M.A. 3otoi Beoill Fortescue, €sq. t D.C.,3.p., Ifl.fl. BORN on November ist 1850, Mr. John Bevill Fortescue, of Boconnoc, Cornwall, and Dropmore, near Maidenhead, is the fourth, but only surviving son of the late Hon. George Matthew Fortescue, Captain of the 25th Regiment, the second son of Hugh, ist Earl Fortescue (by his wife, Hester, the daughter of the Rt. Hon. George Grenville, and sister of George, first Marquess of Buckingham), and brother of Hugh, the 2nd Earl of that name. The latter, as well as his brother, Captain Fortescue, the father of the subject of the present sketch, formed a matrimonial alliance with the Harrowby family, the 2nd Earl Fortescue taking for his first wife the Lady Susan Ryder, the eldest daughter of Dudley, the ist Earl of Harrowby, whilst his younger brother, Captain Fortescue, married the Lady Louisa Elizabeth, that Earl's fifth and youngest daughter on February 19th 1833, by whom he had four sons, the youngest, Mr. John Bevill Fortescue, succeeding to the property on the death of his third brother, Lieut. -Colonel Cyril Dudley Fortescue, of the Coldstream Guards, on October 26th 1890. 193 Balliol College, Oxford, afforded Mr. Fortescue his education, after graduating as a B.A. in 1873, he became a Master of Arts two years later;' and it is not surprising to note, in view of the past history of his ancient race, that he entered the Inner Temple as a student in 1871, at the age of twenty, and was called to the Bar on January 26th 1875, after which he was attached to the Western Circuit. It may be noted here that on both sides of his family, Mr. Fortescue possesses famous legal ancestors. In the days of the House of Lancaster, the sons of that grand soldier, Sir John Fortescue, Governor of Meaux, were Henry, the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland and Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of England in 1442, the faithful friend of King Henry VI, who shared the exile of Queen Margaret, and her son, Prince Edward on the Continent, and during that time wrote his famous De Laudibus Legum Angliae for the instruction of the ill-fated young son of his Royal Master. To his descendant, Lord Clermont, belongs the honour of having collected and printed for private circulation in 1869, " The Works of Sir John Fortescue novo first collected and arranged, as well as " A History of the Family of Fortescue in all its Bvanches, ,, but it must be added that his vindication of the English Laws has been translated several times into the common tongue. And, on the maternal side, in Sir Dudley Ryder, who held the position of Lord Chief Justice of the Court of the King's Bench in 1754, Mr. Fortescue claims relationship with another legal luminary, Sir Dudley being the great grandfather of Lady Louisa Elizabeth Ryder, the mother of the present owner of Dropmore. Two sons, George Grenville and John Grenville, have been the issue of the latter's marriage with Dorothy Augusta, the only daughter of Rear Admiral Sir William Legge George Hoste, the second baronet of his family, who held the office of Groom in Waiting and Aide de Camp to her late Majesty, Queen Victoria. This baronetcy dates from 1814, when it was bestowed upon 94 Admiral Hoste's father, the gallant Sir William Hoste, the hero of the action off Lissa in 1811 and the Capture of Cattaro. Mr. John Bevill Fortescue is lord of the beautiful manor of Barnham, a Justice of the Peace for both Buckinghamshire and Cornwall, and ranks as a Deputy Lieutenant of the latter County, for which he acted as High Sheriff in 1S94, ant ^ * s the patron of five livings. The beauties of far famed Dropmore owe their existence to William Wyndham, Lord Grenville, the founder of the famous " All the Talents' Ministry, in 1806, who married Anne Pitt, the daughter of Lord Camelford, and was first cousin to the younger Pitt. The present house was erected by him, on the site of a mere cottage, and the beautiful six hundred acres of grounds were rescued at the same time from a wild tract of common, and the first tree planted, a Cedar of Lebanon, in 1794. Today, the collection of Pines is almost unrivalled. A fine avenue of Cedars of Lebanon lends a stately dignity to the north west side of the park and mansion. There are drooping deodars in company with fine grown elms and sturdy oaks, among the latter being a descendant of the veritable tree at Boscabel, which is furnished with an inscription to the effect that it has been preserved in honour of the Restoration of the Monarchy in the abstract, and must not be taken as a treasured memento of the return of King Charles II to the throne of his fathers. Here, too, is another oak, said to have been planted by Princess Elizabeth, and magnificent specimens of the Pinus Douglasii and Pinus Nobilis, with many other conifers. The western side of the park gains an additional charm from an ornamental piece of water over two acres in extent, and on its banks, a quaint old arbour, formed of one of the stone alcoves from old London Bridge, calls for notice, whilst the exquisite Italian garden nearly two hundred feet long on the north west side of the J 95 house, as well as a gigantic laurel hedge to the north, standing sentinel as it were to parterres of the most beautiful flowers, and the handsome white marble fountain in their midst, all contribute their share towards the peerless beauty of this exquisite retreat. In 183 1, three years before Lord Grenville's death, which occurred at Dropmore in 1834, when the title became extinct, the poet, Samuel Rogers, recorded his enjoyment of a visit to that nobleman's country seat in the following lines : — Grenville, to thee my gratitude is due For many an hour of studious musing here, For many a day dream, such as hovered round Hafiz or Sadi ; through the golden East, Search where we would, no fairer bowers than these, Thine own creation ; where, called forth by thee, " Flowers worthy of Paradise, with rich inlay Broider the ground," and every mountain pine, Elsewhere unseen (his birthplace in the clouds, His kindred sweeping with Majestic march From cliff to cliff along the snowy ridge Of Caucasus, or nearer yet the moon) Breathes heavenly music — Indeed in addition to the unrivalled collection of Pines, Lord Grenville's chief pleasure was in planning walks and planting shrubs and other trees, a work that, after his death, was faithfully carried on by his widow, Lady Grenville, until her death in 1864. As regards the early history of the property, a large part of what is now the Dropmore estate was included in the manor of Hitcham (the rest belonging to Burnham), which, in the time of Henry VIII was held by Lord Chief Justice Baldwin, whose grand daughter brought it to her husband, Nicholas Clerke, whose son, Sir William Clerke, had the honour of a visit from Oueen Elizabeth in 1602, on which occasion it is recorded that " he so behaved himself that he pleased nobody, but gave occasion to have his vanity and misery spread far and wide." Later, the estate was acquired by Dr. John Friend, who lies buried in Hitcham church, 196 and whose partiality to long epitaphs evoked Pope's well-known epigram : — Friend, for your epitaphs I'm grieved, Where still so much is said ; One half will never be believed, The other never read. And it was from the descendants of the long winded Doctor that Lord Grenville purchased the property in 1792. The mansion contains many fine apartments, the central gallery, or Library, is especially noteworthy, the adjoining room having been used by Lord Grenville as his own private retreat. Another feature of absorbing interest is the collection of family portraits, including one of the Rt. Hon. William Pitt, from whicn Nollekins subsequently completed the bust taken from a death mask of the famous statesman, that also finds place at Dropmore, together with another bust of his father, the great Lord Chatham, the Rt. Hon. George Grenville, and many others of his family. The modern church of St. Anne, dating from 1866, owes its transept, erected in 1877, to the generosity of Lady Louisa Lortescue, who presented it as a memorial of her husband, Mr. John Bevill Fortescue's father, the Hon. George Matthew Fortescue, who died on January 24th of that year. Lady Louisa Fortescue's death occurred in 1899. The exquisite font of English and foreign marbles was presented in memory of Lady Grenville, as well as three beautiful stained windows. Mr. John Bevill Fortescue's town residence is 48 Berkeley Square, \\\, and he is a member of the Carlton, Travellers, Oxford and Cambridge and St. James' Clubs. 197 i g8 Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward Good all, D.L., J. P. Cieut.=ColoiK| Cicbcrt Cdioard 6oodall, D.C., 3P. IN Dinton Hall, that picturesquely situated red brick, partly Jacobean mansion, some six miles from Aylesbury, surrounded by sweet, old fashioned herbaceous gardens, the present lord of the manor of the same name, Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward Goodall holds many links with an historic past, It is even said that some of the carved stone work in the cellar of the house dates from the time of Edward the Confessor. The manor itself was among the Buckinghamshire estates held by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux after the Conquest, and upon his disgrace, Dinnington, Dunnington, or Donyngton, as it is variously written, passed to the Monchensys, and subsequently to the Verneys. According to some authorities, the Hall was rebuilt, whilst others state that it was "restored' about 1500 by William of Warham, Archbisliop of Canterbury in the time of King Henry VII., one of the most trusted adherents of that cautious monarch, with whom he was in high favour. His arms, together with those of the King, may be seen on the stained glass windows of the hall. Later, it passed to the Maynes, and continued in their possession for some two hundred years. At the time of the execution of 199 King Charles I., Dinton was held by Simon Mayne, one of the judges who affixed his seal and signature to his sovereign's death warrant and has thus gone down to posterity with the unenviable title of "Regicide" attached to his name. Twelve years later came the Restoration, when this member of the Mayne family was actually in residence at Dinton Hall, having contrived a fairlv secure hiding place under the roof, to which he obtained access through the stairs, and made the rest of his secret journey on a species of inclined plane, lined with felt. Face to face with a life of future poverty, for his estates were to be forfeited, and with the knowledge of his previous guilt heavy on him, he seems to have had a further difficulty to contend with in the shape of a lack of supplies, that finally compelled him to surrender, and after a trial at Old Bailey, was committed to the Tower. His death occurred the following year, 1661, and his body was then removed, and buried in Dinton Church. His son, also Simon, was finally allowed to resume residence at Dinton, and his son, another Simon, sold the estate in 1727 to John Vanhattem, the son of Liebert Vanhattem, a member of the Dutch Fleet, and husband of the daughter of Admiral De Ruyter, the would-be sweeper of the Thames. The Vanhattems made their first acquaintance with England in company of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. and the grandson of Liebert Vanhattem was Sir John Vanhattem, knighted by King George III., who effected many improvements on his English property, including the introduction of sashed windows to the southern front of the Hall. Sir John, too, was deeply interested in the historical side of his English possessions, and in 1772 began the " Dinton Album", which is a statistical account of the parish compiled from such well-known authorities as the historian, Browne Willis and others, and ornamented with paintings by his son-in-law, the Rev. William Goodall. This gentleman married Sir John's only daughter and heiress, Rebecca, 2oo in 1788, who thus brought Dinton into her husband's family. Further traces of Sir John's industry mav be found in the ruins of a small building engirdled with trees, called " Dinton Castle", which he erected about 1765, intending it for use as a summer house. By her husband, the Rev. William Goodall, Vicar of Mearsham, Sir John's daughter, Rebecca, had sixteen children, of whom was James Joseph, born on January 4th 1800, and afterwards Vicar of Brornham and Oakley in Bedfordshire for upwards of forty years, and Rural Dean, who married Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of William Boon in Northamptonshire, by whom he had issue, two sons and one daughter. The elder, William George Alexander, a barrister of the Inner Temple, died in 1876, and the Dinton property thus came to the second son, now Lieut. - Colonel Liebert Edward Goodall, born in 1842, who is a public school man, having received his education from that noted centre of learning and training ground of famous men, Rugby. On October 24th 1876, Colonel Goodall married Philadelphia Bruce, sister of the late Colonel Edward Dyke Lee, of Hartwell, and thus further cemented his ties with Buckinghamshire, by uniting his fortunes with those of this well-known family, who have held Hartwell for many years. Ever mindful of his duties as a citizen, Colonel Goodall is a Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and a County Alderman for Buckinghamshire, and was formerly a Captain in the 59th Regiment, and a Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel of the 4th Battalion of the Gloucestershires. Another well known member of this family was the Rev. Joseph J. Goodall, D.D., the younger brother of the Rev. William Goodall, who was Provost of Eton for no less than thirty four years, and died in 1840, beloved by all who knew him. 201 Among other treasures at Dinton are a basket hilted sword, used by Cromwell at the battle of Naseby, a misshapen shoe consisting of a thousand patches, more or less, belonging to the " Dinton Hermit", formerly one John Bigg, clerk to the Regicide Simon Mayne, who afterwards adopted the simple life, and lived in a cave in the vicinity. It may be added that he enjoyed the local reputation of having been the actual executioner of Charles I., although the accuracy of that statement cannot be determined. In addition to many good portraits and paintings, there is a fine collection of fossils, shells, coins and other relics, as well as much armour and three brass models of ancient guns. It was about 1852 when the Rev. James Joseph Goodall in conducting some excavations near the so-called "Dinton Castle", came upon several skeletons lying close to the foundations of the ruin, as well as a fine specimen of a Saxon drinking glass, and a glass bottle of the time of Edward II. Some ancient spears were also found in the same spot, one of them still transfixing the neck of one of the skeletons, in eloquent witness of a tragedy long since buried in the past. The Church of St. Peter and Paul at Dinton, a stone building in the Early English style is said to have served as a model for the Cathedral at Lund, which w^s built about 1072 by Donatus, an Anglo Saxon architect, and the resemblance between the two edifices has been commented on by Marryat in his " One Year in Sweden". Two antique flagons, forming part of the Dinton Church Communion plate, are especially prized, as the gift of Sir John Vanhattem, in 1772. Lieut. -Colonel Goodall is a member of the Constitutional Naval and Military and Carlton Clubs. 202 IflOKHINUIH ill. CLASS K'.xf <tiMiii.i'.